The Effect of Lactobacillus casei Consumption in Improvement of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: an Animal Study.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an important neuropsychiatric disorder worldwide. Common treatments of OCD include serotonergic antidepressants, which can cause potentially serious side effects. We assessed the effects of Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) Shirota consumption in an animal model of OCD. OCD-like symptoms were induced in rats by the chronic injection of the D2/D3 dopamine agonist quinpirole hydrochloride. Rats were classified into five groups of 6 rats. Four groups were injected chronically with quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, twice weekly for 5 weeks). They were fed with L. casei Shirota (109 CF/g, daily for 4 weeks) (group 1), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, daily for 4 weeks) (group 2), combination of L. casei Shirota and fluoxetine (group 3), and normal saline (positive control group). The last group did not receive dopamine agonist and was only injected with saline (negative control group).
Expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), solute carrier family 6 member 4 (Slc6a4), and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 2A (Htr2a) were assessed in orbitofrontal cortex tissues of all rats. Behavioral tests showed improvement of OCD signs in rats treated with L. casei Shirota, fluoxetine, and a combination of drugs. Quantitative PCR analysis showed a remarkable decrease in the expression of Bdnf and an increase in the expression of Htr2a in quinpirole-treated rats. After treatment with L. casei Shirota and fluoxetine, the expression level of Bdnf was increased remarkably, whereas Htr2a expression was decreased. The current study showed the effectiveness of L. casei Shirota in the treatment of OCD in a rat model. The beneficial effects of this probiotic are possibly exerted through the modulation of serotonin-related genes expression.
Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels and single-nucleotide polymorphism Val66Met are associated with peripheral neuropathy in type II diabetic patients.
Studies by our group demonstrated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in blood and BDNF-Val66met-SNP as potential biomarkers in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Here, we evaluate symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (PN) and depression in patients with type II diabetes mellitus in search of an association with serum BDNF levels and the Val66Met-SNP.In total, 90 patients enrolled in the study; 23 (25.6%) had known PN, as determined by nerve conduction studies (NCS-PN), and 67 (74.4%) were not diagnosed with PN (U-PN). PN symptoms were assessed and graded in these groups using the total neuropathy score (TNSr) and DN4 scales. Small nerve fiber testing of sensitivity thresholds to cold, warm and hot pain signals was performed using the Q-sense device.
Depression was assessed using the PHQ9 questionnaire. BDNF protein levels and Val66Met-SNP were determined with ELISA and Sanger sequencing, respectively.NCS-PN patients showed lower serum BDNF levels alongside significantly higher TNSr, DN4 and PHQ9 scores and lower hot pain sensitivity thresholds as compared to U-PN patients. Patients with Met-BDNF-SNP showed increased TNSr scores and lower hot pain sensitivity thresholds as compared to patients with Val-BDNF-SNP.
Depression showed a weaker correlation with sensitivity thresholds to hot pain signals as compared to TNSr and DN4 scores.Diminished peripheral BDNF resources and Met-BDNF-SNP genotype are associated with augmented symptoms of PN in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Sensitivity thresholds to hot pain signals may be less influenced by depression and possibly more accurately detect PN symptoms in diabetic patients.
Description: Recombinant Human Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli
Propagation of goat putative spermatogonial stem cells under growth factors defined serum-free culture conditions.
In the present study, we used a serum-free culture media to propagate goat putative spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and evaluated the effect of crucial growth factors on relative expression of some SSC markers and self-renewal related genes. The enriched SSCs were cultured on a homologous Sertoli cell feeder layer in KO-DMEM supplemented with 10% KOSR.
Putative SSC colonies emerged between day 6 and 10 which were then characterized by the expression of numerous spermatogonial and pluripotency related markers.
After 15 days of subculture, the relative mRNA expression study revealed that 40 ng/mL concentration of Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) upregulated the expression of BCL6B, ID4, PLZF, and UCHL1. Moreover, the supplementation of GDNF + bFGF up-regulated the expression of PLZF and BCL6B. UCHL1 expression was higher after addition of GDNF + LIF while, THY1 overexpressed in response to the addition of GDNF + CSF1. These results demonstrated that the goat SSCs were efficiently propagated using a KOSR based serum-free media and the growth factor supplementation markedly influences their gene expression profile.
Protective effects of lycopene in cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases: An update on epidemiological and mechanistic perspectives.
Recent mechanistic and epidemiological studies have provided insights into health benefits of dietary lycopene to decrease the risk and complications associated with several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. These chronic diseases are primarily associated with oxidative stress-induced systemic and low-grade chronic inflammation.
Owing to its potent antioxidant properties, lycopene can potentially alleviate enhanced levels of proinflammatory mediators (e.g., proinflammatory