Neurophysin

Cone snail analogs of the pituitary hormones oxytocin/vasopressin and their carrier protein neurophysin. Proteomic and transcriptomic identification of conopressins and conophysins.

Transcriptomic analysis of cone snail venom duct tissue has permitted the identification of diverse conopressin/conophysin precursor sequences from seven distinct conus species. Multiple precursor isoforms are present in C.monile, C.lividus and C.loroisii. Aqueous extracts of the venom duct tissue from C.monile yield a band, at ~ 15-20 kDa on SDS-PAGE. In-gel trypsin digestion, followed by mass spectrometry establishes the presence of two distinct conopressin/conophysin isoforms that differ at position 8 in the predicted conopressin nonapeptide sequence. Mass spectrometric analysis of aqueous extracts revealed the presence of four conopressin related peptides, whose sequences could be deduced from MS/MS fragmentation patterns. The four sequences determined in this study are CFIRNCPKG, CFIRNCPEG, CFIRNCPK* and CFIRNCPE* (∗ indicates amide), which were further confirmed by comparison with chemically synthesized peptides. A conophysin with a mass of 9419.7 Da was also detected, corresponding to one of the isoforms revealed by the transcriptome data.

Complete conservation of fourteen Cys residues and the key residues involved in peptide hormone binding is established by comparison of conophysin sequences, with the crystallographically characterized sequence of bovine neurophysin, in complex with vasopressin. A survey of available sequences for oxytocin/vasopressin peptides in both vertebrates and invertebrates establishes the conopressins as a distinct group in this family. C-terminal amidated, truncated conopressin analogs may arise by alternate post-translational processing.


In silico studies on anti-stress compounds of ethanolic root extract of Hemidesmus indicus L.

Alternative medicine is available for those diseases which cannot be treated by conventional medicine. Ayurveda and herbal medicines are important alternative methods in which treatment is done with extracts of different medicinal plants. This work is concerned with evaluation of anti-stress bioactive compounds from ethanolic root extract of Hemidesmus indicus.Gas chromatography and Mass Spectrum studies are used to identify the compounds present in the ethanolic extract based on the retention time, area. In order to perform docking studies, Vasopressin model is generated using modeling by Modeller 9v7. Vasopressin structure is developed based on the crystal structure of neurophysin-oxytocin from Bos taurus (PDB ID: 1NPO_A) collected from PDB data bank. Using molecular dynamics simulation methods, the final predicted structure is obtained and further analyzed by verify 3D and PROCHECK programs, confirmed the final model is reliable. The identified compounds are docked to Vasopressin for the prediction of anti-stress activity using GOLD 3.0.1 software.The predicted model of Vasopressin structure is stabilized and confirmed that it is a reliable structure for docking studies. The results indicated ARG4, THR7, ASP9, ASP26, ALA32, ALA 80 in Vasopressin are important determinant residues in binding as they have strong hydrogen bonding with the phytocompounds.

Among the 21 phytocompounds identified and docked, molecule Deoxiinositol, pentakis-O-(trimethylsilyl) showed best docking results with Vasopressin.The identified compounds were used for anti-stress activity by insilico method with Vasopressin which plays an important role in causing stress and hence selected for inhibitory studies with the phytocompounds. The phytocompounds are inhibiting Vasopressin through hydrogen bodings and are important in protein-ligand interactions. Docking results showed that out of twenty one compounds, Deoxiinositol, pentakis-O-(trimethylsilyl) shown best docking energy to the Vasopressin.

Neurophysin I Polyclonal Antibody

ABP55453-003ml Abbkine 0.03ml 158 EUR
Description: A polyclonal antibody for detection of Neurophysin I from Human, Rat. This Neurophysin I antibody is for WB, IHC-P, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Neurophysin I

Neurophysin I Polyclonal Antibody

ABP55453-01ml Abbkine 0.1ml 289 EUR
Description: A polyclonal antibody for detection of Neurophysin I from Human, Rat. This Neurophysin I antibody is for WB, IHC-P, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Neurophysin I

Neurophysin I Polyclonal Antibody

ABP55453-02ml Abbkine 0.2ml 414 EUR
Description: A polyclonal antibody for detection of Neurophysin I from Human, Rat. This Neurophysin I antibody is for WB, IHC-P, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Neurophysin I

Anti-Neurophysin I antibody

STJ94437 St John's Laboratory 200 µl 197 EUR
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Neurophysin I.

Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 (OXT)

1-CSB-YP017315HU(A4) Cusabio
  • 703.00 EUR
  • 415.00 EUR
  • 2288.00 EUR
  • 1016.00 EUR
  • 1558.00 EUR
  • 498.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1(OXT) expressed in Yeast

Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 (OXT)

1-CSB-YP017315HU(A4)a4 Cusabio
  • 586.00 EUR
  • 299.00 EUR
  • 2172.00 EUR
  • 900.00 EUR
  • 1442.00 EUR
  • 382.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1(OXT) expressed in Yeast

Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 (OXT)

1-CSB-YP017315HU Cusabio
  • 586.00 EUR
  • 299.00 EUR
  • 2172.00 EUR
  • 900.00 EUR
  • 1442.00 EUR
  • 382.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1(OXT),partial expressed in Yeast

Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 (OXT)

1-CSB-MP017315HU Cusabio
  • 389.00 EUR
  • 1394.00 EUR
  • 563.00 EUR
  • 1025.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
Description: Recombinant Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1(OXT),partial expressed in Mammalian cell

Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 (OXT)

1-CSB-EP017315HU Cusabio
  • 437.00 EUR
  • 238.00 EUR
  • 1544.00 EUR
  • 653.00 EUR
  • 1029.00 EUR
  • 296.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1(OXT),partial expressed in E.coli

Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 (OXT)

1-CSB-EP017315HUb3 Cusabio
  • 437.00 EUR
  • 238.00 EUR
  • 1544.00 EUR
  • 653.00 EUR
  • 1029.00 EUR
  • 296.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1(OXT),partial expressed in E.coli

Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1 (OXT) Antibody

20-abx318244 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1 (OXT) Antibody

20-abx008903 Abbexa
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 189.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 30 ul

Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1 (OXT) Antibody

abx431480-200ul Abbexa 200 ul 286 EUR

Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1 (OXT) Antibody

abx433083-200ul Abbexa 200 ul 384 EUR

Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1 (OXT) Antibody

20-abx217573 Abbexa
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 342.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 (OXT) Antibody

20-abx330181 Abbexa
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 244.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Vasopressin-Neurophysin 2-Copeptin (AVP) Antibody

20-abx110674 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1 (OXT) Antibody (HRP)

20-abx315892 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1 (OXT) Antibody (FITC)

20-abx315893 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1 (OXT) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx315894 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Rat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E02O0346-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E02O0346-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E02O0346-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E09O0346-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E09O0346-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E09O0346-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E08O0346-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E08O0346-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E08O0346-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E03O0346-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E03O0346-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E03O0346-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E01O0346-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E01O0346-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E01O0346-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E07O0346-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E07O0346-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E07O0346-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E06O0346-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E06O0346-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E06O0346-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E04O0346-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E04O0346-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E04O0346-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human OXT/ Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 ELISA Kit

E2936Hu Sunlong 1 Kit 605 EUR

Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin (AVP) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx106408 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin (AVP) Antibody (FITC)

20-abx107820 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin (AVP) Antibody (HRP)

20-abx109237 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Human Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 (OXT) ELISA Kit

abx392246-96tests Abbexa 96 tests 911 EUR

Mouse Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 (OXT) ELISA Kit

20-abx390138 Abbexa
  • 7378.00 EUR
  • 3933.00 EUR
  • 911.00 EUR
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests
  • 96 tests

Bovine Oxytocin- neurophysin 1, OXT ELISA KIT

ELI-23197b Lifescience Market 96 Tests 928 EUR

Mouse Oxytocin- neurophysin 1, Oxt ELISA KIT

ELI-15151m Lifescience Market 96 Tests 865 EUR

Human Oxytocin- neurophysin 1, OXT ELISA KIT

ELI-38293h Lifescience Market 96 Tests 824 EUR

Porcine Oxytocin- neurophysin 1, OXT ELISA KIT

ELI-13138p Lifescience Market 96 Tests 928 EUR

Guinea pig Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E05O0346-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Guinea pig Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Guinea pig Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E05O0346-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Guinea pig Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Guinea pig Oxytocin neurophysin 1 ELISA kit

E05O0346-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Guinea pig Oxytocin neurophysin 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin(AVP) ELISA kit

CSB-EL002466PI-24T Cusabio 1 plate of 24 wells 165 EUR
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Pig Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin (AVP) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. A new trial version of the kit, which allows you to test the kit in your application at a reasonable price.

Pig Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin(AVP) ELISA kit

1-CSB-EL002466PI Cusabio
  • 900.00 EUR
  • 5476.00 EUR
  • 2900.00 EUR
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
  • 10 plates of 96 wells each
  • 5 plates of 96 wells each
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Pig Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin(AVP) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits.

Sheep Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin(AVP) ELISA kit

CSB-EL002466SH-24T Cusabio 1 plate of 24 wells 165 EUR
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Sheep Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin (AVP) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. A new trial version of the kit, which allows you to test the kit in your application at a reasonable price.

Sheep Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin(AVP) ELISA kit

1-CSB-EL002466SH Cusabio
  • 900.00 EUR
  • 5476.00 EUR
  • 2900.00 EUR
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
  • 10 plates of 96 wells each
  • 5 plates of 96 wells each
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Sheep Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin(AVP) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits.

Pig AVP/ Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin ELISA Kit

E0021Pi Sunlong 1 Kit 717 EUR

Bovine AVP/ Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin ELISA Kit

E0033Bo Sunlong 1 Kit 717 EUR

Rat Avp/ Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin ELISA Kit

E0108Ra Sunlong 1 Kit 571 EUR


Role of protein aggregation and degradation in autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

This review focuses on the cellular and molecular aspects underlying familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (DI), a rare disorder that is usually transmitted in an autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease, manifesting in infancy or early childhood and gradually progressing in severity, is caused by fully penetrant heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding prepro-vasopressin-neurophysin II, the precursor of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP).

Post mortem studies in affected adults have shown cell degeneration in vasopressinergic hypothalamic nuclei. Studies in cells expressing pathogenic mutants and knock-in rodent models have shown that the mutant precursors are folding incompetent and fail to exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as occurs normally with proteins that have entered the regulated secretory pathway. A portion of these mutants is eliminated via ER-associated degradation (ERAD) by proteasomes after retrotranslocation to the cytosol. Another portion forms large disulfide-linked fibrillar aggregates within the ER, in which wild-type precursor is trapped. Aggregation capacity is independently conferred by two domains of the prohormone, namely the AVP moiety and the C-terminal glycopeptide (copeptin). The same domains are also required for packaging into dense-core secretory granules and regulated secretion, suggesting a disturbed balance between the physiological self-aggregation at the trans-Golgi network and avoiding premature aggregate formation at the ER in the disease.

The critical role of ERAD in maintaining physiological water balance has been underscored by experiments in mice expressing wild-type AVP but lacking critical components of the ERAD machinery. These animals also develop DI and show amyloid-like aggregates in the ER lumen. Thus, the capacity of the ERAD is exceeded in autosomal dominant DI, which can be viewed as a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the formation of amyloid ER aggregates. While DI symptoms develop prior to detectable cell death in transgenic DI mice, the eventual loss of vasopressinergic neurons is accompanied by autophagy, but the mechanism leading to cell degeneration in autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal DI still remains unknown.


A monoclonal antibody raised against a synthetic oxytocin peptide stains mouse hypothalamic neurons.

A monoclonal antibody against oxytocin was generated in 7a5 hybridoma cells derived from myeloma cells and lymphocytes from the spleen of mice immunized with a synthetic oxytocin peptide. The 7a5 monoclonal antibody bound with oxytocin in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. 7a5 cell growth medium was diluted up to 5,000 times and used for immunohistochemistry.

First, to test the specificity of the 7a5 antibody against oxytocin, we stained brain tissues of oxytocin knockout mice, mice, in which the first exon of the oxytocin-

Back to top