Moxifloxacin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Mediated by Moxifloxacin-Dependent IgM and IgG Antiplatelet Antibodies: A Case Report
- Moxifloxacin is a rare but important cause of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DIT). We describe a patient who presented with an acute onset of severe thrombocytopenia complicated by petechial rash, epistaxis, and melena. Recent new drug exposures included moxifloxacin and two proton pump inhibitors.
- On presentation to the hospital, all recently initiated medications were discontinued and the patient’s thrombocytopenia was treated with platelet transfusions, intravenous immunoglobulin, and high-dose corticosteroids. Her thrombocytopenia improved over the next seven days and she was discharged on hospital day 8.
- Serologic testing revealed strongly positive moxifloxacin-dependent IgM and IgG antiplatelet antibodies, confirming a diagnosis of moxifloxacin-induced immune thrombocytopenia. DIT has been reported with other fluoroquinolone antibiotics, especially ciprofloxacin. This case documents a rare but potentially fatal complication of exposure to moxifloxacin and is the first to demonstrate objective evidence of acute sensitization with IgM antibody positivity.
- It highlights the need to consider this potential reaction when choosing antibiotic therapy, particularly in patients who are at high risk for bleeding, have hematologic disorders, or are receiving myelosuppressive therapies, and perhaps in those with a history of multiple drug allergies.
Inhibitory anti ADAMTS13 antibodies with a new rapid fully automated CLiA assay
Background: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disorder characterized by severe ADAMTS13 deficiency. The acquired form is associated with autoantibodies directed against ADAMTS13. Both noninhibitory and inhibitory autoantibodies can be detected by ELISA assay, while only inhibitory autoantibodies are detected by Bethesda assay. Due to its short TAT and good performance, chemiluminescence (CliA) ADAMTS13 activity (HemosIL Acustar) has proven to be a good choice in the diagnosis of TTP in emergency settings. Aim of this study was to analyse the performance of the CliA ADAMTS13 activity assay in detecting inhibitory ADAMTS13 antibodies using the Bethesda assay.
Methods: A method comparison study was performed on 69 stored samples: 11 acute TTPs, 38 TTP follow-ups, 5 TTP relapses, 1 congenital TTP, 10 HUS, 4 suspected TTPs. We retrieved the results of tests previously run in ELISA for both activity and autoantibodies. At the same time, we reran new tests including ELISA and CliA activity, ELISA autoantibodies, and ELISA and CliA Bethesda assays on thawed frozen samples.
Results: Very good correlation was observed between ELISA and CliA activity assay results (r = 0.96) and between archived ELISA and CliA activity results (r = 0.93). Agreement between the anti-ADAMTS13 assays ranged from good (k = 0.63) to very good (k = 0.92).
Conclusions: CliA and ELISA Bethesda assays showed very good agreement with samples run at the same time using ELISA ADAMTS13-autoantibody assay. Albeit more expensive, the CliA Bethesda assay identified inhibitory anti-ADAMTS13 within almost the same TAT as ELISA, but with better automation and limited operator involvement.
Development of a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against highly pathogenic viruses in human and animal serum samples
Surveillance of highly pathogenic viruses circulating in both human and animal populations is crucial to unveil endemic infections and potential zoonotic reservoirs. Monitoring the burden of disease by serological assay could be used as an early warning system for imminent outbreaks as an increased seroprevalance often precedes larger outbreaks.
However, the multitude of highly pathogenic viruses necessitates the need to identify specific antibodies against several targets from both humans as well as from potential reservoir animals such as bats. In order to address this, we have developed a broadly reactive multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MMIA) for the detection of antibodies against several highly pathogenic viruses from both humans and animals.
To this aim, nucleoproteins (NP) of Ebola virus (EBOV), Marburg virus (MARV) and nucleocapsid proteins (NP) of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus were employed in a 5-plex assay for IgG detection. After optimisation, specific binding to each respective NP was shown by testing sera from humans and non-human primates with known infection status.
The usefulness of our assay for serosurveillance was shown by determining the immune response against the NP antigens in a panel of 129 human serum samples collected in Guinea between 2011 and 2012 in comparison to a panel of 88 sera from the German blood bank. We found good agreement between our MMIA and commercial or in-house reference methods by ELISA or IIFT with statistically significant higher binding to both EBOV NP and MARV NP coupled microspheres in the Guinea panel.
Finally, the MMIA was successfully adapted to detect antibodies from bats that had been inoculated with EBOV- and MARV- virus-like particles, highlighting the versatility of this technique and potentially enabling the monitoring of wildlife as well as human populations with this assay. We were thus able to develop and validate a sensitive and broadly reactive high-throughput serological assay which could be used as a screening tool to detect antibodies against several highly pathogenic viruses.
Maternal Epstein-Barr virus-specific antibodies and risk of infection in Ugandan infants
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a major cause of malignancy worldwide. Maternal antibody is thought to prevent EBV infection because it is uncommon in early infancy. Maternal HIV infection is associated with an increased incidence of EBV infection in exposed infants, which we hypothesized results from impaired transfer of EBV-neutralizing maternal antibodies.
Methods: Among Ugandan infants followed for EBV acquisition from birth, we measured antibody binding to EBV glycoproteins (e.g., gp350, gH/gL) involved in B cell and epithelial cell entry, as well as viral neutralization and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in plasma samples prior to infection. These serologic data were analyzed for differences between HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and unexposed (HUU) infants, and for associations with incident infant EBV infection.
Results: HEU infants had significantly higher titers than HUU infants for all EBV-binding and neutralizing antibodies measured (p<0.01), but not ADCC activity, which was similar between groups. No antibody measure was associated with a decreased risk of EBV acquisition in the cohort.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that in this cohort maternal antibody did not protect infants against EBV infection through viral neutralization. The identification of protective non-neutralizing antibody functions would be invaluable for the development of an EBV vaccine