Biological bank resulting from brain tumors as well as all the tools necessary for the study of the main markers of these tumors.
GLIOME OR GLIAL TUMOR
Gliomas or glial tumors are all brain tumors, benign or malignant, originating from the support tissue or glia. These are rare tumors, the prognosis of which, which is extremely variable, is mainly linked to size and location. They always justify treatment in a specialized service in order to best adapt the treatment.
An adenoma is a benign tumor that can affect a gland or a mucous membrane.
All the glands can be affected: endocrine gland with internal hormonal secretion like the thyroid or pituitary gland, gland with external secretion like the breast, the prostate or the sebaceous glands of the skin, or a mucous membrane like that of the digestive tract (in this case, we speak more specifically of polyps).
Astrocytoma is an infiltrating and slowly growing tumor, developed from astrocytic cells. Astrocytoma is one of the gliomas, tumors developed from glial cells, which make up the supporting tissue of neurons, and of which astrocytic cells are a part. It is an infiltrating tumor of the cerebral hemispheres of adults, but also of the cerebellum in children. The astrocytoma can correspond to different histological grades depending on the cell differentiation. It can be mild, but it can develop into an anaplastic astrocytoma, or, to a greater degree of malignancy, into glioblastoma multiforme.
Craniopharyngioma is an embryonic tissue defect (that is, one that arose before birth) in the pituitary region. The reasons for this malformation are still unknown. The tumor, often cystic, is visible on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and is benign in nature. It develops from the remains of Rathke’s pocket, in and above the pituitary gland. The craniopharyngioma is located in the immediate vicinity of areas of the brain that are very important for somatic and psychic development. The proximity of the optic nerve can lead to a reduction in the visual field, or even blindness.
Neighboring parts of the brain such as the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are responsible for the formation of many hormones responsible for growth, weight regulation, puberty, water metabolism. Often the first complaints of patients are related to a hormonal deficit. In addition, near this region are synthesized various proteins which play an important role in the nycthemeral rhythm (day / night), the concentration, the eating behavior of the patients.
Ependymoma is a cystic type tumor of the central nervous system. In the majority of cases it is a benign tumor (grade I), but sometimes it can be malignant (cancerous) and then be of grade II or III.
This tumor can be located all along the central nervous system, going from the brain to the bottom of the spinal cord (bottom of the spine).
A meningioma is a generally benign extra-axial tumor, but it can sometimes be malignant, developed from cells of the meningeal lining of the brain and spinal cord near the venous drainage pathways. Born next to it, but outside the nervous system, a meningioma progresses slowly for years, forming a firm, more or less globular lesion which gradually repels, compresses and irritates the neighboring noble tissue, without ever invading it.
Meningiomas represent about 20% of tumors observed in the central nervous system or in contact with it. Little is known about the factors that trigger their appearance and influence their development. Meningiomas occur two out of three in the second half of life, a little more often in women over 50 years of age than in men.
Some clinical and biological observations, notably the presence of specific receptors on their cells, suggest that their evolution can be influenced by ovarian hormones. Meningiomas are sometimes seen after trauma, radiation therapy, or someone who has had meningitis when young and has survived. The clinical symptoms leading to the discovery of these tumors vary with their location. There is no specific age for a meningioma to manifest. It can occur both in young adults and in the elderly.
Oligodendroglioma is a grade II glioma. It is a well differentiated infiltrating tumor.