Brain Research Tools

Selective auditory attention detection based on effective connectivity by single-trial EEG.

Focusing attention on one speaker in an environment with lots of speakers is one of the important abilities of the human auditory system. The temporal dynamics of the attention process and how the brain precisely performs this task are yet unknown. This paper proposes a new method for the selective auditory attention detection (SAAD) from single-trial EEG signals using the brain effective connectivity and complex network analysis for two groups of listeners attending to the left or right ear.Here, the connectivity matrices of all subjects obtained from the Granger causality method are used to extract different features. Then, by employing the processes of feature selection and optimization, an optimized feature set is determined for the train of a classifier.

Among different measures of brain connectivity (i.e., segregation, integration, and centrality), the evaluation results show that the optimized feature set obtained by the combination of the centrality measures contain the most discriminative features for the classification process. The proposed SAAD method as compared with state-of-the-art attention detection approaches from the literature yields the best performance in terms of various measures.The new SAAD approach is advantageous, in the sense that the detection of attention is performed from single-trial EEG signals of each subject, without reconstructing the speech stimuli. This means that the proposed method could be employed for real-time applications such as smart hearing aid devices or brain-computer interface (BCI) systems.


The protective effect of metformin on mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic mice brain.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction and oxidative stress. The molecular mechanisms involved in diabetes-associated neurological complications remain elusive. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of metformin (MF) on regulatory networks and integrated stress responses in brain tissue of Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. STZ-induced diabetic mice were treated with MF (20 mg/kg BW), and whole brain tissue was harvested for further analysis. Protein carbonylation was measured as a marker of neuronal oxidative stress.

Protein expression of mt chaperones, maintenance proteins, and regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR) were measured by Western blot. Transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme GSTA4; mt biogenesis markers, ER stress regulators, and miR-132 and miR-148a were analysed using qPCR. The results showed that MF efficiently reduced protein carbonylation and oxidation. Mt function was improved by MF-treatment through upregulation of chaperone proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and LonP1). MF elicits the UPR to attenuate ER stress through a miR-132 repression mechanism. Additionally, MF was found to elevate deacetylases- Sirt1, Sirt3; and mt biogenesis marker PGC-1α through miR-148a repression.

This is the first study to demonstrate the epigenetic regulation of mt maintenance by MF in diabetic C57BL/6 mouse whole brain tissue. We thus conclude that MF, beyond its anti-hyperglycaemic role, mediates neuroprotection through epigenomic and integrated stress responses in diabetic mice.


Oral glutathione administration inhibits the oxidative stress and the inflammatory responses in AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in mice.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Reduced antioxidants and increased oxidative stress and inflammation are responsible for the pathological features characteristic of an AD brain. We observed decreased levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant brain antioxidant, and decreased GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratios in AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in (NL-G-F) mouse brains. Repeated oral GSH administration for 3 weeks dose-dependently increased GSH levels and restored the GSH/GSSH ratio. Consistent with the restoration of GSH levels, the levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of oxidative stress, were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of NL-G-F mice.

Additionally, inflammatory responses, such as microgliosis and increased mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, were also inhibited. Moreover, behavioral deficits including cognitive decline, depressive-like behaviors, and anxiety-related behaviors observed in NL-G-F mice were significantly improved by oral and chronic GSH administration. Taken together, our data suggest that oral GSH administration is an attractive therapeutic strategy to reduce the excessive oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the AD brain.

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

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  • Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

    20-abx004896
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    abx029617-400ul 400 ul
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    20-abx129364
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx129526
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  • Brain Finger Protein (BFP) Antibody

    20-abx130270
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx131883
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    20-abx131885
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  • Brain Finger Protein (BFP) Antibody

    20-abx128757
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    • EUR 1149.00
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  • Creatine Kinase Brain Protein (Recombinant)

    20-abx073920
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  • Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

    20-abx102119
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  • Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

    20-abx102120
    • EUR 453.00
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    • EUR 1302.00
    • EUR 620.00
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  • Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

    20-abx102121
    • EUR 467.00
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    • EUR 1358.00
    • EUR 648.00
    • EUR 356.00
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  • Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

    20-abx102122
    • EUR 356.00
    • EUR 913.00
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    • EUR 272.00
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx102416
    • EUR 356.00
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    • EUR 996.00
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx102417
    • EUR 300.00
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    • EUR 773.00
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx102418
    • EUR 439.00
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx102419
    • EUR 453.00
    • EUR 133.00
    • EUR 1288.00
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    • EUR 342.00
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  • Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

    20-abx102998
    • EUR 398.00
    • EUR 133.00
    • EUR 1094.00
    • EUR 537.00
    • EUR 314.00
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  • Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

    20-abx141856
    • EUR 370.00
    • EUR 606.00
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  • Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

    abx145052-100ug 100 ug
    EUR 391.00
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    abx145755-100ug 100 ug
    EUR 391.00
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  • Brain Protein I3 (BRI3) Antibody

    20-abx148695
    • EUR 425.00
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  • Brain Specific Homeobox (BSX) Antibody

    20-abx148701
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    • EUR 342.00
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  • Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

    20-abx149355
    • EUR 425.00
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  • Brain Specific Homeobox (BSX) Antibody

    20-abx141122
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    • EUR 537.00
    • EUR 217.00
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  • Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

    20-abx178525
    • EUR 1233.00
    • EUR 592.00
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    • 200 ug
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  • Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

    20-abx178526
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    • EUR 592.00
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    20-abx175616
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx175617
    • EUR 356.00
    • EUR 133.00
    • EUR 996.00
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx175618
    • EUR 398.00
    • EUR 133.00
    • EUR 1094.00
    • EUR 537.00
    • EUR 314.00
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx175619
    • EUR 398.00
    • EUR 133.00
    • EUR 1094.00
    • EUR 537.00
    • EUR 314.00
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx175620
    • EUR 398.00
    • EUR 133.00
    • EUR 1094.00
    • EUR 537.00
    • EUR 314.00
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  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.
  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx175621
    • EUR 411.00
    • EUR 133.00
    • EUR 1135.00
    • EUR 551.00
    • EUR 314.00
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx175622
    • EUR 425.00
    • EUR 133.00
    • EUR 1177.00
    • EUR 578.00
    • EUR 328.00
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  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.
  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx175623
    • EUR 1288.00
    • EUR 620.00
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    20-abx176032
    • EUR 1233.00
    • EUR 592.00
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  • Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

    20-abx174701
    • EUR 857.00
    • EUR 439.00
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx171465
    • EUR 843.00
    • EUR 439.00
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx171466
    • EUR 871.00
    • EUR 453.00
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    • 200 ug
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

    20-abx171467
    • EUR 913.00
    • EUR 467.00
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    • 200 ug
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  • Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

    20-abx171942
    • EUR 857.00
    • EUR 439.00
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    • 200 ug
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  • Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

    abx120018-1mg 1 mg
    EUR 1344.00
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
  • Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

    20-abx111815
    • EUR 732.00
    • EUR 398.00
    • 150 ul
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  • Phosphoglycerate Mutase 1 (Brain) Antibody

    20-abx114470
    • EUR 732.00
    • EUR 398.00
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  • Glycogen phosphorylase, brain form Antibody

    20-abx109826
    • EUR 411.00
    • EUR 1845.00
    • EUR 599.00
    • EUR 182.00
    • EUR 300.00
    • 100 ug
    • 1 mg
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    • 20 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
  • T-Box, Brain, 1 Antibody

    20-abx116010
    • EUR 732.00
    • EUR 398.00
    • 150 ul
    • 50 ul
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  • Active Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB)

    4-APC030Hu01
    • EUR 771.10
    • EUR 309.00
    • EUR 2616.64
    • EUR 938.88
    • EUR 1777.76
    • EUR 579.00
    • EUR 6391.60
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P12277
  • Buffer composition: 20mM Tris, 150mM NaCl, pH8.0, containing 1mM EDTA, 1mM DTT, 0.01% SKL, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 41.3kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 5.7
  • Description: Recombinant Human Creatine Kinase, Brain expressed in: Available from E.coli, Yeast, Baculovirus and Mammalian cells

    Brain Vasculature, Peptide Aptamer, Biotinylated

    AP-304-B 1 mg EUR 0.00

    Brain Vasculature, Peptide Aptamer, unlabeled

    AP-304-U 5 mg EUR 0.00

    cDNA from Alzheimer's Disease: Brain

    C1236035Alz 40 reactions
    EUR 668.00
    Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

    cDNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Brain

    C1236035Lcs 40 reactions
    EUR 668.00
    Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

    cDNA from Parkinson's Disease: Brain

    C1236035Par 40 reactions
    EUR 668.00
    Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

    cDNA from Dementia: Brain: Hippocampus

    C1236052Dem 40 reactions
    EUR 801.00
    Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

    cDNA from Depression: Brain: Hippocampus

    C1236052Dep 40 reactions
    EUR 801.00
    Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

    Brain and Acute Leukemia, Cytoplamatic

    PR27238 2 ug
    EUR 191.00

    Brain Expressed X-Linked 1

    PR27258 2 ug
    EUR 191.00

    Human Brain Microglia Cells - Immortalized

    HBMCs001 500,000 cells
    EUR 3306.00

    Human Brain Cancer Primer Library

    HBRC-I 1 set
    EUR 548.00

    Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    HEC02 500,000+ Cells frozen
    EUR 1080.00

    Brain Injury Derived Neurotrophic Peptide

    H-3914.0001 1.0mg
    EUR 151.00
    Description: Sum Formula: C62H102N18O18; CAS# [148330-12-5]

    Brain Injury Derived Neurotrophic Peptide

    H-3914.0005 5.0mg
    EUR 515.00
    Description: Sum Formula: C62H102N18O18; CAS# [148330-12-5]

    Mouse Brain Whole tissue lysate

    MAL-1403 1 mg
    EUR 524.00

    GFP Expressing Human Brain Pericytes

    HMP101 500,000 cells - Frozen
    EUR 1354.00

    Human Brain Microvascular Pericytes (HBMVPCs)

    HMP104 500,000+ Cells - Frozen
    EUR 1080.00

    GFP Expressing Human Brain Astrocytes

    HMP201 500,000 Cells - Frozen
    EUR 1354.00

    Mouse Brain Microvessel Isolation Kit

    P750-4 NULL
    EUR NULL

    S-100?? Protein, Bovine Brain

    P1275-100
    EUR 403.00

    BDNF/Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    E21-076 10ug
    EUR 343.00

    Native Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB)

    4-NPC030Mu01
    • EUR 503.20
    • EUR 238.00
    • EUR 1612.00
    • EUR 604.00
    • EUR 1108.00
    • EUR 400.00
    • EUR 3880.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: Inquire
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): Inquire
  • Isoelectric Point: Inquire
  • Description: Recombinant Mouse Creatine Kinase, Brain expressed in: Mouse

    Recombinant Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

    4-RPA541Ca01
    • EUR 637.60
    • EUR 274.00
    • EUR 2116.00
    • EUR 772.00
    • EUR 1444.00
    • EUR 490.00
    • EUR 5140.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P16859
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 41.3kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 6.1
  • Description: Recombinant Dog Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

    4-RPA541Hu01
    • EUR 530.08
    • EUR 245.00
    • EUR 1712.80
    • EUR 637.60
    • EUR 1175.20
    • EUR 418.00
    • EUR 4132.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P16860
  • Buffer composition: 20mM Tris, 150mM NaCl, pH8.0, containing 1mM EDTA, 1mM DTT, 0.01% SKL, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 17.2kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 11
  • Description: Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

    4-RPA541Mu01
    • EUR 535.46
    • EUR 246.00
    • EUR 1732.96
    • EUR 644.32
    • EUR 1188.64
    • EUR 421.00
    • EUR 4182.40
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P40753
  • Buffer composition: 100mMNaHCO3, 500mMNaCl, pH8.3, containing 1mM EDTA, 1mM DTT, 0.01% SKL, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 12.3kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 10
  • Description: Recombinant Mouse Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

    4-RPA541Mu02
    • EUR 535.46
    • EUR 246.00
    • EUR 1732.96
    • EUR 644.32
    • EUR 1188.64
    • EUR 421.00
    • EUR 4182.40
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P40753
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 37.9kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: Inquire
  • Description: Recombinant Mouse Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

    4-RPA541Po01
    • EUR 601.76
    • EUR 264.00
    • EUR 1981.60
    • EUR 727.20
    • EUR 1354.40
    • EUR 466.00
    • EUR 4804.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P07634
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 41.7kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 7.2
  • Description: Recombinant Pig Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

    4-RPA541Ra01
    • EUR 548.00
    • EUR 250.00
    • EUR 1780.00
    • EUR 660.00
    • EUR 1220.00
    • EUR 430.00
    • EUR 4300.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P13205
  • Buffer composition: 20mM Tris, 150mM NaCl, pH8.0, containing 1mM EDTA, 1mM DTT, 0.01% SKL, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 18.7kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 10.1
  • Description: Recombinant Rat Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Brain Finger Protein (BFP)

    4-RPB093Hu01
    • EUR 496.03
    • EUR 236.00
    • EUR 1585.12
    • EUR 595.04
    • EUR 1090.08
    • EUR 395.00
    • EUR 3812.80
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: Q9ULX5
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 31.4kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 9
  • Description: Recombinant Human Brain Finger Protein expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Brain Finger Protein (BFP)

    4-RPB093Mu01
    • EUR 508.58
    • EUR 239.00
    • EUR 1632.16
    • EUR 610.72
    • EUR 1121.44
    • EUR 403.00
    • EUR 3930.40
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: Q96DY5
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 29.5kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: Inquire
  • Description: Recombinant Mouse Brain Finger Protein expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Brain Finger Protein (BFP)

    4-RPB093Ra01
    • EUR 530.08
    • EUR 245.00
    • EUR 1712.80
    • EUR 637.60
    • EUR 1175.20
    • EUR 418.00
    • EUR 4132.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: O70418
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 31.9kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 9.3
  • Description: Recombinant Rat Brain Finger Protein expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB)

    4-RPA845Hu01
    • EUR 467.36
    • EUR 228.00
    • EUR 1477.60
    • EUR 559.20
    • EUR 1018.40
    • EUR 376.00
    • EUR 3544.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P11216
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 32.3kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 9.1
  • Description: Recombinant Human Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB)

    4-RPC030Ca01
    • EUR 458.40
    • EUR 226.00
    • EUR 1444.00
    • EUR 548.00
    • EUR 996.00
    • EUR 370.00
    • EUR 3460.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P05124
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 41.3kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: Inquire
  • Description: Recombinant Dog Creatine Kinase, Brain expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB)

    4-RPC030Hu01
    • EUR 472.74
    • EUR 229.00
    • EUR 1497.76
    • EUR 565.92
    • EUR 1031.84
    • EUR 379.00
    • EUR 3594.40
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P12277
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 41.5kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: Inquire
  • Description: Recombinant Human Creatine Kinase, Brain expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB)

    4-RPC030Mu01
    • EUR 501.41
    • EUR 237.00
    • EUR 1605.28
    • EUR 601.76
    • EUR 1103.52
    • EUR 398.00
    • EUR 3863.20
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: Inquire
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): Inquire
  • Isoelectric Point: Inquire
  • Description: Recombinant Mouse Creatine Kinase, Brain expressed in: E.coli

    Recombinant Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB)

    4-RPC030Ra01
    • EUR 413.60
    • EUR 214.00
    • EUR 1276.00
    • EUR 492.00
    • EUR 884.00
    • EUR 340.00
    • EUR 3040.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P07335
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 41.5kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: Inquire
  • Description: Recombinant Rat Creatine Kinase, Brain expressed in: E.coli

    Rat Brain Whole tissue lysate

    RAL-1463 1 mg
    EUR 524.00

    BNP, Brain Natriuretic Peptide, human

    RC218-20 20ug
    EUR 104.38
  • Product category: Proteins/Recombinant Proteins/Cytokines
  • Recombinant Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A)

    4-RPD035Hu01
    • EUR 483.49
    • EUR 232.00
    • EUR 1538.08
    • EUR 579.36
    • EUR 1058.72
    • EUR 386.00
    • EUR 3695.20
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: Q16623
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 33.1kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: Inquire
  • Description: Recombinant Human Syntaxin 1A, Brain expressed in: E.coli

    Brain Injury Derived Neurotrophic Peptide

    SP-100434-1 1 mg
    EUR 286.00

    Synthetic Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

    4-SPA541Hu01
    • EUR 413.60
    • EUR 214.00
    • EUR 1276.00
    • EUR 492.00
    • EUR 884.00
    • EUR 340.00
    • EUR 3040.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 500 ug
    • 50ug
    • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P16860
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): Inquire
  • Isoelectric Point: Inquire
  • Description: Recombinant Human Synthetic Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) expressed in: E.coli

    Rat Brain PrimaCell1: Normal Brain Fibroblasts Growth Supplements with Serum (for 500 ml medium)

    9-26011 1 Set EUR 0.00

    Mouse Brain PrimaCell1: Normal Brain Fibroblasts Growth Supplements with Serum (for 500 ml medium)

    9-33010 1 Set EUR 0.00

    Human Brain PrimaCell1: Normal Brain Fibroblasts Growth Supplements with Serum (for 500 ml medium)

    9-47013 1 Set EUR 0.00

    Brain Derived Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (1-11); FGF acidic (1-11) (bovine brain)

    5-00863 4 x 5mg EUR 0.00

    Brain Derived Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (102-111); FGF acidic (102-111) (bovine brain)

    5-00864 4 x 5mg EUR 0.00

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Antibody

    20-abx213627
    • EUR 411.00
    • EUR 300.00
    • 100 ul
    • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
  • Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Antibody

    20-abx213936
    • EUR 411.00
    • EUR 300.00
    • 100 ul
    • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase, Brain (NOS1) Antibody

    20-abx317930
    • EUR 411.00
    • EUR 1845.00
    • EUR 599.00
    • EUR 182.00
    • EUR 300.00
    • 100 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 20 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody (FITC)

    20-abx271087
    • EUR 509.00
    • EUR 258.00
    • EUR 1511.00
    • EUR 704.00
    • EUR 398.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-15 working days.
  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody (Biotin)

    20-abx271350
    • EUR 481.00
    • EUR 244.00
    • EUR 1400.00
    • EUR 662.00
    • EUR 356.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-15 working days.
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase, Brain (NOS1) Antibody

    abx235774-100ug 100 ug
    EUR 551.00
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.
  • T-Box, Brain 1 (TBR1) Antibody

    abx238529-100ug 100 ug
    EUR 509.00
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.
  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody (Biotin)

    20-abx271646
    • EUR 467.00
    • EUR 244.00
    • EUR 1344.00
    • EUR 634.00
    • EUR 342.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-15 working days.
  • Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody (Biotin)

    20-abx271665
    • EUR 495.00
    • EUR 258.00
    • EUR 1469.00
    • EUR 690.00
    • EUR 398.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-15 working days.
  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody (Biotin)

    20-abx271791
    • EUR 398.00
    • EUR 230.00
    • EUR 1080.00
    • EUR 537.00
    • EUR 314.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-15 working days.
  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody (Biotin)

    20-abx272599
    • EUR 425.00
    • EUR 230.00
    • EUR 1219.00
    • EUR 592.00
    • EUR 328.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-15 working days.
  • Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody (Biotin)

    20-abx273334
    • EUR 481.00
    • EUR 244.00
    • EUR 1414.00
    • EUR 662.00
    • EUR 356.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-15 working days.
  • Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody (FITC)

    20-abx273519
    • EUR 523.00
    • EUR 258.00
    • EUR 1595.00
    • EUR 732.00
    • EUR 411.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-15 working days.
  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody (FITC)

    20-abx273790
    • EUR 411.00
    • EUR 230.00
    • EUR 1163.00
    • EUR 565.00
    • EUR 314.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-15 working days.
  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody (FITC)

    20-abx273999
    • EUR 453.00
    • EUR 244.00
    • EUR 1316.00
    • EUR 634.00
    • EUR 342.00
    • 100 ug
    • 10 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.
  • Cannabinoid Receptor 1, Brain (CNR1) Antibody

    20-abx330040
    • EUR 314.00
    • EUR 244.00
    • 100 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
  • Adenylate Cyclase 8, Brain (ADCY8) Antibody

    abx331307-100ul 100 ul
    EUR 425.00
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
  • Adenylate Cyclase 8, Brain (ADCY8) Antibody

    20-abx333941
    • EUR 411.00
    • EUR 1845.00
    • EUR 599.00
    • EUR 182.00
    • EUR 300.00
    • 100 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 20 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
  • Gastrulation Brain Homeobox 2 (GBX2) Antibody

    20-abx334280
    • EUR 411.00
    • EUR 1845.00
    • EUR 599.00
    • EUR 182.00
    • EUR 300.00
    • 100 ug
    • 1 mg
    • 200 ug
    • 20 ug
    • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Antibody

    abx412091-01mg 0.1 mg
    EUR 704.00
  • Shipped within 1 week.
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase, Brain (NOS1) Antibody

    abx412354-50ug 50 ug
    EUR 509.00
  • Shipped within 1 week.
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase, Brain (NOS1) Antibody

    abx433046-200ul 200 ul
    EUR 384.00
  • Shipped within 1-3 working days.
  • Gastrulation Brain Homeobox 2 (GBX2) Antibody

    abx431282-200ul 200 ul
    EUR 384.00
  • Shipped within 1-3 working days.
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Antibody

    abx432402-200ul 200 ul
    EUR 384.00
  • Shipped within 1-3 working days.
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Antibody

    abx448551-100ug 100 ug
    EUR 523.00
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

  • Screening and Treatment of Obstetric Anemia: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines

    Iron deficiency is a major cause of anemia.1 Other causes of anemia include deficiency in nutrients (e.g., vitamin B12 and folate), inflammation, parasitic infections and disorders in hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis or red blood cell production and survival (e.g., hemoglobinopathies).

    1 Iron deficiency anemia is defined as blood Hb concentrations of less than 110 g/L in the first trimester, less than 105 g/L in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and less than 100 g/L postpartum.

    2 The serum ferritin level provides information about the capacity of the body to reserve iron and its concentration of less than 15 µg/L (a cut off that is associated with higher specificity) during pregnancy is diagnostic of iron deficiency anemia.

    2,3 A level of less than 30 µg/L of ferritin (a cut off that is associated with higher sensitivity) should prompt treatment.

    2,3 However, serum ferritin measurement may not be accurate during infection or inflammation, as it can be normal or elevated despite a low Hb concentration.

    1 Iron deficiency in pregnancy has significant negative effects on both maternal and fetal outcomes, including low birthweight, prematurity, perinatal mortality, increased risk of maternal infections and lowered tolerance to blood loss and infection.1 It also affects immediate and long term neurodevelopment of infants.

    4 It was found that low maternal iron intake is associated with increased risk of autism, schizophrenia and abnormal brain structure in the offspring.

    4 A review reported that findings from several cross-sectional studies suggested that the prevalence of iron deficiency among pregnant Canadians and pregnant adolescents ranged from 3% to 66%.5 Given the negative impacts of iron deficiency on maternal and child health, there is still uncertainty as whether screening of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy should be part of routine care, and which type of testing (e.g., Hb or ferritin) is more effective to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. The aim of this report is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening obstetric iron deficiency in the first or second trimester using ferritin testing, and to review evidence-based guidelines for assessing and treating obstetric iron deficiency.

    In this report, gender-neutral language has been used where possible in order to be inclusive of all gender identities. When reporting results from the published manuscript, gender-neutral language was not used in order to be consistent with the terms used in the source material.
    The Architecture of the Human Fovea

    We summarize the development, structure, different neural types and neural circuitry in the human fovea. The foveal pit is devoid of rod photoreceptors and of secondary and tertiary neurons, allowing light to directly stimulate cones and give us maximal visual acuity. The circuitry underlying the transmission to the brain occurs at the rim of the fovea. The predominant circuitry is concerned with the ‘private’ cone to midget bipolar cell and midget ganglion cell pathways.

    Every cone drives two midget bipolar cells and two midget ganglion cells so that the message from a single cone is provided to the brain as a contrast between lighter signals (ON pathways) or darker signals (OFF pathways). The sharpening of this contrast message is provided by horizontal-cell feedback circuits and, in some pathways by amacrine circuitry. These midget pathways carry a concentric color and spatially opponent message from red and green cones. Blue cones are sparse, even largely missing in the foveal center while occurring at somewhat higher density than elsewhere in the cone mosaic of the foveal slope. Signals from blue cones have different pathways to ganglion cells. The best understood is through an ON-type blue-cone-selecting bipolar cell to a non-midget, small bistratified ganglion cell.

    An OFF-center blue midget bipolar is known to be present in the fovea and connects to a blue OFF midget ganglion cell. Another OFF blue message is sent to a giant melanopsin ganglion cell that is present in the foveal rim area, but the circuitry driving that is less certain and possibly involves an intermediate amacrine cell. The H2 horizontal cells are thought to be feedback neurons primarily of the blue cone system.

    Amacrine cells of the fovea are mostly small-field and glycinergic. The larger field GABAergic amacrines are present but more typically surround the fovea in a ring of processes, with little or no penetration into the foveal center. Thus, the small field glycinergic amacrines are important in some sort of interplay with the midget bipolar–midget ganglion cell channels. We have anatomical descriptions of their synaptology but only a few have been recorded from physiologically. Both OFF pathway and ON pathway amacrines are present in the fovea.


    Measuring water exchange across the blood-brain barrier using MRI.

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the transfer of solutes and essential nutrients into the brain. Growing evidence supports BBB dysfunction in a range of acute and chronic brain diseases, justifying the need for novel research and clinical tools that can non-invasively detect, characterize, and quantify BBB dysfunction in-vivo.

    Many approaches already exist for measuring BBB dysfunction in man using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (e.g. dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI measurements of gadolinium leakage).