Brain Research Tools

Selective auditory attention detection based on effective connectivity by single-trial EEG.

Focusing attention on one speaker in an environment with lots of speakers is one of the important abilities of the human auditory system. The temporal dynamics of the attention process and how the brain precisely performs this task are yet unknown. This paper proposes a new method for the selective auditory attention detection (SAAD) from single-trial EEG signals using the brain effective connectivity and complex network analysis for two groups of listeners attending to the left or right ear.Here, the connectivity matrices of all subjects obtained from the Granger causality method are used to extract different features. Then, by employing the processes of feature selection and optimization, an optimized feature set is determined for the train of a classifier.

Among different measures of brain connectivity (i.e., segregation, integration, and centrality), the evaluation results show that the optimized feature set obtained by the combination of the centrality measures contain the most discriminative features for the classification process. The proposed SAAD method as compared with state-of-the-art attention detection approaches from the literature yields the best performance in terms of various measures.The new SAAD approach is advantageous, in the sense that the detection of attention is performed from single-trial EEG signals of each subject, without reconstructing the speech stimuli. This means that the proposed method could be employed for real-time applications such as smart hearing aid devices or brain-computer interface (BCI) systems.


The protective effect of metformin on mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic mice brain.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction and oxidative stress. The molecular mechanisms involved in diabetes-associated neurological complications remain elusive. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of metformin (MF) on regulatory networks and integrated stress responses in brain tissue of Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. STZ-induced diabetic mice were treated with MF (20 mg/kg BW), and whole brain tissue was harvested for further analysis. Protein carbonylation was measured as a marker of neuronal oxidative stress.

Protein expression of mt chaperones, maintenance proteins, and regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR) were measured by Western blot. Transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme GSTA4; mt biogenesis markers, ER stress regulators, and miR-132 and miR-148a were analysed using qPCR. The results showed that MF efficiently reduced protein carbonylation and oxidation. Mt function was improved by MF-treatment through upregulation of chaperone proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and LonP1). MF elicits the UPR to attenuate ER stress through a miR-132 repression mechanism. Additionally, MF was found to elevate deacetylases- Sirt1, Sirt3; and mt biogenesis marker PGC-1α through miR-148a repression.

This is the first study to demonstrate the epigenetic regulation of mt maintenance by MF in diabetic C57BL/6 mouse whole brain tissue. We thus conclude that MF, beyond its anti-hyperglycaemic role, mediates neuroprotection through epigenomic and integrated stress responses in diabetic mice.


Oral glutathione administration inhibits the oxidative stress and the inflammatory responses in AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in mice.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Reduced antioxidants and increased oxidative stress and inflammation are responsible for the pathological features characteristic of an AD brain. We observed decreased levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant brain antioxidant, and decreased GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratios in AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in (NL-G-F) mouse brains. Repeated oral GSH administration for 3 weeks dose-dependently increased GSH levels and restored the GSH/GSSH ratio. Consistent with the restoration of GSH levels, the levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of oxidative stress, were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of NL-G-F mice.

Additionally, inflammatory responses, such as microgliosis and increased mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, were also inhibited. Moreover, behavioral deficits including cognitive decline, depressive-like behaviors, and anxiety-related behaviors observed in NL-G-F mice were significantly improved by oral and chronic GSH administration. Taken together, our data suggest that oral GSH administration is an attractive therapeutic strategy to reduce the excessive oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the AD brain.

Brain and Acute Leukemia, Cytoplamatic

PR27238 Neuromics 2 ug 191 EUR

Brain Expressed X-Linked 1

PR27258 Neuromics 2 ug 191 EUR

Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

HEC02 Neuromics 500,000+ Cells frozen 1080 EUR

GFP Expressing Human Brain Pericytes

HMP101 Neuromics 500,000 cells - Frozen 1354 EUR

Human Brain Microvascular Pericytes (HBMVPCs)

HMP104 Neuromics 500,000+ Cells - Frozen 1080 EUR

GFP Expressing Human Brain Astrocytes

HMP201 Neuromics 500,000 Cells - Frozen 1354 EUR

Human Brain Microglia Cells - Immortalized

HBMCs001 Neuromics 500,000 cells 3306 EUR

Human Blood Brain Barrier Model

3D45002 Neuromics 6 well 2373 EUR

Mouse Brain Microvessel Isolation Kit

P750-4 101Bio - Ask for price

Brain Injury Derived Neurotrophic Peptide

5-00866 CHI Scientific 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Brain Finger Protein (BFP) Antibody

20-abx128757 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1149.00 EUR
  • 565.00 EUR
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx129174 Abbexa
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1205.00 EUR
  • 578.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Finger Protein (BFP) Antibody

20-abx129364 Abbexa
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1177.00 EUR
  • 578.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx129526 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1135.00 EUR
  • 551.00 EUR
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx129574 Abbexa
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1233.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Finger Protein (BFP) Antibody

20-abx130270 Abbexa
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1233.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

T-Box, Brain, 1 Antibody

20-abx116010 Abbexa
  • 732.00 EUR
  • 398.00 EUR
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx120018-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1344 EUR

Glycogen phosphorylase, brain form Antibody

20-abx109826 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Phosphoglycerate Mutase 1 (Brain) Antibody

20-abx114470 Abbexa
  • 732.00 EUR
  • 398.00 EUR
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx111815 Abbexa
  • 732.00 EUR
  • 398.00 EUR
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx338616 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx002738 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

20-abx004896 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx102119 Abbexa
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1205.00 EUR
  • 578.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx102120 Abbexa
  • 453.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1302.00 EUR
  • 620.00 EUR
  • 342.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx102121 Abbexa
  • 467.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1358.00 EUR
  • 648.00 EUR
  • 356.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx102122 Abbexa
  • 356.00 EUR
  • 913.00 EUR
  • 467.00 EUR
  • 154.00 EUR
  • 272.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx102416 Abbexa
  • 356.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 996.00 EUR
  • 495.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx102417 Abbexa
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 773.00 EUR
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 258.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx102418 Abbexa
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1233.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx102419 Abbexa
  • 453.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1288.00 EUR
  • 620.00 EUR
  • 342.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

20-abx102998 Abbexa
  • 398.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1094.00 EUR
  • 537.00 EUR
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Human Brain S-100 Protein

abx060914-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1497 EUR

Human Brain S-100B Protein

abx060915-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 3502 EUR

Creatine Kinase Brain Protein (Recombinant)

20-abx073920 Abbexa
  • 230.00 EUR
  • 1302.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 50 ug

Rabbit Brain Cephalin 5 mL

41052-1 Pel-Freez 5mL 186.8 EUR

Rabbit Brain Cephalin 10 mL

41052-2 Pel-Freez 10mL 267.28 EUR

Rabbit Brain Cephalin 100 mL

41052-3 Pel-Freez 100mL 1414.59 EUR

CK BRAIN UNSTRIPPED 50 EA*

43004-2 Pel-Freez 50 EA 555.46 EUR

CK BRAIN STRIPPED 50 EA*

43005-2 Pel-Freez 50 EA 641.38 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx131883 Abbexa
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 718.00 EUR
  • 384.00 EUR
  • 154.00 EUR
  • 244.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx131884 Abbexa
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 815.00 EUR
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 154.00 EUR
  • 258.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx131885 Abbexa
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 759.00 EUR
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 154.00 EUR
  • 244.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Protein I3 (BRI3) Antibody

20-abx148695 Abbexa
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 342.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Specific Homeobox (BSX) Antibody

20-abx148701 Abbexa
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 342.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx149355 Abbexa
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 342.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

abx145755-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 391 EUR

Brain Specific Homeobox (BSX) Antibody

20-abx141122 Abbexa
  • 356.00 EUR
  • 537.00 EUR
  • 217.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 30 ul

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

20-abx141856 Abbexa
  • 370.00 EUR
  • 606.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 50 ul

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

abx145052-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 391 EUR

Brain Protein I3 (BRI3) Antibody

20-abx007785 Abbexa
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 189.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 30 ul

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx010472-100ul Abbexa 100 ul 411 EUR

Brain Protein 44 (BRP44) Antibody

20-abx014275 Abbexa
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 98.00 EUR
  • 398.00 EUR
  • 495.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 200 ug
  • 300 µg

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

abx024006-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1274 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

abx024007-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1274 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

abx024008-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1274 EUR

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

abx033150-400ul Abbexa 400 ul 523 EUR

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

abx033150-80l Abbexa 80 µl 286 EUR

Brain Finger Protein (RNF112) Antibody

abx029617-400ul Abbexa 400 ul 523 EUR

Brain Finger Protein (RNF112) Antibody

abx029617-80l Abbexa 80 µl 286 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx016076-100ul Abbexa 100 ul 411 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx016077-100ul Abbexa 100 ul 411 EUR

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

abx018666-100ul Abbexa 100 ul 342 EUR

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

abx027546-400ul Abbexa 400 ul 523 EUR

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

abx027546-80l Abbexa 80 µl 286 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx020716-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1274 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx020717-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1344 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx020718-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1344 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx020719-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1344 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx020720-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1344 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx020721-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1344 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx022707-01ml Abbexa 0.1 ml 739 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx022708-01ml Abbexa 0.1 ml 1713 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptid (BNP) Antibody

abx022709-01ml Abbexa 0.1 ml 1080 EUR

Bovine BRAIN UNSTRIPPED 5 EA*

57104-1 Pel-Freez 5 EA 699.01 EUR

Bovine BRAIN STRIPPED 5 EA*

57105-1 Pel-Freez 5 EA 814.29 EUR

Pig BRAIN UNSTRIPPED 5 EA*

59404-2 Pel-Freez 5 EA 324.91 EUR

Recombinant Human Creatine Kinase Brain

7-04234 CHI Scientific 10µg Ask for price

Recombinant Human Creatine Kinase Brain

7-04235 CHI Scientific 50µg Ask for price

Recombinant Human Creatine Kinase Brain

7-04236 CHI Scientific 1mg Ask for price

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

abx430005-200ul Abbexa 200 ul 384 EUR

Brain Injury Derived Neurotrophic Peptide

20-abx266438 Abbexa
  • 551.00 EUR
  • 926.00 EUR
  • 398.00 EUR
  • 10 mg
  • 25 mg
  • 5 mg

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

abx236973-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 481 EUR

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

abx236974-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 481 EUR

Brain Finger Protein (RNF112) Antibody

abx237336-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 551 EUR

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx241064 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx241831 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

20-abx214378 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain (PYGB) Antibody

20-abx214822 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx178525 Abbexa
  • 1233.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx178526 Abbexa
  • 1233.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx174701 Abbexa
  • 857.00 EUR
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Brain Finger Protein (BFP) Antibody

20-abx175616 Abbexa
  • 1177.00 EUR
  • 578.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx175617 Abbexa
  • 356.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 996.00 EUR
  • 495.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx175618 Abbexa
  • 398.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1094.00 EUR
  • 537.00 EUR
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx175619 Abbexa
  • 398.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1094.00 EUR
  • 537.00 EUR
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx175620 Abbexa
  • 398.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1094.00 EUR
  • 537.00 EUR
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx175621 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1135.00 EUR
  • 551.00 EUR
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx175622 Abbexa
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1177.00 EUR
  • 578.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx175623 Abbexa
  • 1288.00 EUR
  • 620.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx176032 Abbexa
  • 1233.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx171465 Abbexa
  • 843.00 EUR
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx171466 Abbexa
  • 871.00 EUR
  • 453.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Antibody

20-abx171467 Abbexa
  • 913.00 EUR
  • 467.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx171942 Abbexa
  • 857.00 EUR
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx330058 Abbexa
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 244.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx327675 Abbexa
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 244.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Specific Homeobox (BSX) Antibody

20-abx327970 Abbexa
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 244.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Injury Derived Neurotrophic Peptide

SP-100434-1 Alpha Diagnostics 1 mg 286 EUR

Rat Brain Whole tissue lysate

RAL-1463 Alpha Diagnostics 1 mg 524 EUR

Mouse Brain Whole tissue lysate

MAL-1403 Alpha Diagnostics 1 mg 524 EUR

Brain Injury Derived Neurotrophic Peptide

H-3914.0001 Bachem 1.0mg 151 EUR
Description: Sum Formula: C62H102N18O18; CAS# [148330-12-5]

Brain Injury Derived Neurotrophic Peptide

H-3914.0005 Bachem 5.0mg 515 EUR
Description: Sum Formula: C62H102N18O18; CAS# [148330-12-5]

Monosialoganglioside GM1 from bovine brain

CTGM15-N-10 Alpha Diagnostics 100 ug 225 EUR

Brain Vasculature, Peptide Aptamer, Biotinylated

AP-304-B Alpha Diagnostics 1 mg Ask for price

Brain Vasculature, Peptide Aptamer, unlabeled

AP-304-U Alpha Diagnostics 5 mg Ask for price

Human Brain Cancer Primer Library

HBRC-I Real Time Primers 1 set 548 EUR

Human Brain Medulla Tissue Lysate

30R-AM039 Fitzgerald 150 ug 235 EUR
Description: Fresh tissue lysate isolated from the medulla of human brain

cDNA from Alzheimer's Disease: Brain

C1236035Alz Biochain 40 reactions 668 EUR
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

cDNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Brain

C1236035Lcs Biochain 40 reactions 668 EUR
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

cDNA from Parkinson's Disease: Brain

C1236035Par Biochain 40 reactions 668 EUR
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

cDNA from Dementia: Brain: Hippocampus

C1236052Dem Biochain 40 reactions 801 EUR
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

cDNA from Depression: Brain: Hippocampus

C1236052Dep Biochain 40 reactions 801 EUR
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Brain Lysate (0 Days Old)

1403-0 ProSci 0.1 mg 191 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate (0 Days Old) was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 50 mM DTT.

Brain Lysate (14 Days Old)

1403-14 ProSci 0.1 mg 191 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate (14 Days Old) was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 50 mM DTT.

Brain Lysate (7 Days Old)

1403-7 ProSci 0.1 mg 191 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate (7 Days Old) was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 50 mM DTT.

S-100?? Protein, Bovine Brain

P1275-100 Biovision 403 EUR

Brain Derived Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (1-11); FGF acidic (1-11) (bovine brain)

5-00863 CHI Scientific 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Brain Derived Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (102-111); FGF acidic (102-111) (bovine brain)

5-00864 CHI Scientific 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Rat Brain PrimaCell1: Normal Brain Fibroblasts Growth Supplements with Serum (for 500 ml medium)

9-26011 CHI Scientific 1 Set Ask for price

Mouse Brain PrimaCell1: Normal Brain Fibroblasts Growth Supplements with Serum (for 500 ml medium)

9-33010 CHI Scientific 1 Set Ask for price

Human Brain PrimaCell1: Normal Brain Fibroblasts Growth Supplements with Serum (for 500 ml medium)

9-47013 CHI Scientific 1 Set Ask for price

Human Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

1-CSB-RP057744h Cusabio
  • 380.00 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1309.00 EUR
  • 560.00 EUR
  • 873.00 EUR
  • 262.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF),partial expressed in E.coli

Human Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

1-CSB-RP057754h Cusabio
  • 380.00 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1309.00 EUR
  • 560.00 EUR
  • 873.00 EUR
  • 262.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF),partial expressed in E.coli

Human Glycogen phosphorylase, brain form (PYGB)

1-CSB-RP100654h Cusabio
  • 380.00 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1309.00 EUR
  • 560.00 EUR
  • 873.00 EUR
  • 262.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Glycogen phosphorylase, brain form(PYGB),partial expressed in E.coli

Rat Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf)

1-CSB-RP166394r Cusabio
  • 505.00 EUR
  • 265.00 EUR
  • 1827.00 EUR
  • 766.00 EUR
  • 1218.00 EUR
  • 335.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Rat Brain-derived neurotrophic factor(Bdnf),partial expressed in E.coli

Recombinant Kidney And Brain Protein (KIBRA)

4-RPL824Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 481.70 EUR
  • 232.00 EUR
  • 1531.36 EUR
  • 577.12 EUR
  • 1054.24 EUR
  • 385.00 EUR
  • 3678.40 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Mouse Kidney And Brain Protein expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Phosphoglycerate Mutase 1, Brain (PGAM1)

4-RPE528Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 467.36 EUR
  • 228.00 EUR
  • 1477.60 EUR
  • 559.20 EUR
  • 1018.40 EUR
  • 376.00 EUR
  • 3544.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Phosphoglycerate Mutase 1, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

4-RPA011Ca01 Cloud-Clone
  • 565.92 EUR
  • 254.00 EUR
  • 1847.20 EUR
  • 682.40 EUR
  • 1264.80 EUR
  • 442.00 EUR
  • 4468.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Dog Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

4-RPA011Eq01 Cloud-Clone
  • 601.76 EUR
  • 264.00 EUR
  • 1981.60 EUR
  • 727.20 EUR
  • 1354.40 EUR
  • 466.00 EUR
  • 4804.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Horse Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

4-RPA011Ga01 Cloud-Clone
  • 625.06 EUR
  • 270.00 EUR
  • 2068.96 EUR
  • 756.32 EUR
  • 1412.64 EUR
  • 481.00 EUR
  • 5022.40 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Chicken Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

4-RPA011Gu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 539.04 EUR
  • 247.00 EUR
  • 1746.40 EUR
  • 648.80 EUR
  • 1197.60 EUR
  • 424.00 EUR
  • 4216.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Guinea pig Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

4-RPA011Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 816.80 EUR
  • 322.00 EUR
  • 2788.00 EUR
  • 996.00 EUR
  • 1892.00 EUR
  • 610.00 EUR
  • 6820.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

4-RPA011Mi01 Cloud-Clone
  • 583.84 EUR
  • 259.00 EUR
  • 1914.40 EUR
  • 704.80 EUR
  • 1309.60 EUR
  • 454.00 EUR
  • 4636.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human, Mouse, Rat, Rabbit, Pig, Goat, Horse Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

4-RPA011Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 530.08 EUR
  • 245.00 EUR
  • 1712.80 EUR
  • 637.60 EUR
  • 1175.20 EUR
  • 418.00 EUR
  • 4132.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Mouse Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

4-RPA011Po01 Cloud-Clone
  • 583.84 EUR
  • 259.00 EUR
  • 1914.40 EUR
  • 704.80 EUR
  • 1309.60 EUR
  • 454.00 EUR
  • 4636.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Pig Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

4-RPA011Ra01 Cloud-Clone
  • 530.08 EUR
  • 245.00 EUR
  • 1712.80 EUR
  • 637.60 EUR
  • 1175.20 EUR
  • 418.00 EUR
  • 4132.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Rat Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

4-RPA011Rb01 Cloud-Clone
  • 565.92 EUR
  • 254.00 EUR
  • 1847.20 EUR
  • 682.40 EUR
  • 1264.80 EUR
  • 442.00 EUR
  • 4468.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Rabbit Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Adenylate Cyclase 1, Brain (ADCY1)

4-RPB348Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 494.24 EUR
  • 235.00 EUR
  • 1578.40 EUR
  • 592.80 EUR
  • 1085.60 EUR
  • 394.00 EUR
  • 3796.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Adenylate Cyclase 1, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Adenylate Cyclase 1, Brain (ADCY1)

4-RPB348Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 494.24 EUR
  • 235.00 EUR
  • 1578.40 EUR
  • 592.80 EUR
  • 1085.60 EUR
  • 394.00 EUR
  • 3796.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Mouse Adenylate Cyclase 1, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Adenylate Cyclase 2, Brain (ADCY2)

4-RPB403Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 494.24 EUR
  • 235.00 EUR
  • 1578.40 EUR
  • 592.80 EUR
  • 1085.60 EUR
  • 394.00 EUR
  • 3796.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Adenylate Cyclase 2, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Adenylate Cyclase 8, Brain (ADCY8)

4-RPB420Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 537.25 EUR
  • 247.00 EUR
  • 1739.68 EUR
  • 646.56 EUR
  • 1193.12 EUR
  • 422.00 EUR
  • 4199.20 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Adenylate Cyclase 8, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Prostaglandin D2 Synthase, Brain (PGD2S)

4-RPA724Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 485.28 EUR
  • 233.00 EUR
  • 1544.80 EUR
  • 581.60 EUR
  • 1063.20 EUR
  • 388.00 EUR
  • 3712.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Prostaglandin D2 Synthase, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase 1, Brain (GAD1)

4-RPC904Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 386.72 EUR
  • 206.00 EUR
  • 1175.20 EUR
  • 458.40 EUR
  • 816.80 EUR
  • 322.00 EUR
  • 2788.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Mouse Glutamate Decarboxylase 1, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase 1, Brain (GAD1)

4-RPC904Mu02 Cloud-Clone
  • 386.72 EUR
  • 206.00 EUR
  • 1175.20 EUR
  • 458.40 EUR
  • 816.80 EUR
  • 322.00 EUR
  • 2788.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Mouse Glutamate Decarboxylase 1, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase 1, Brain (GAD1)

4-RPC904Ra01 Cloud-Clone
  • 413.60 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1276.00 EUR
  • 492.00 EUR
  • 884.00 EUR
  • 340.00 EUR
  • 3040.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Rat Glutamate Decarboxylase 1, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Cannabinoid Receptor 1, Brain (CNR1)

4-RPC950Ra01 Cloud-Clone
  • 503.20 EUR
  • 238.00 EUR
  • 1612.00 EUR
  • 604.00 EUR
  • 1108.00 EUR
  • 400.00 EUR
  • 3880.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Rat Cannabinoid Receptor 1, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Human Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

1-CSB-EP002655HU Cusabio
  • 380.00 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1309.00 EUR
  • 560.00 EUR
  • 873.00 EUR
  • 262.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) expressed in E.coli

BSA Conjugated Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

4-CPA541Hu11 Cloud-Clone
  • 236.19 EUR
  • 166.00 EUR
  • 610.72 EUR
  • 270.24 EUR
  • 440.48 EUR
  • 221.00 EUR
  • 1376.80 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: Protein conjugation

OVA Conjugated Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

4-CPA541Hu21 Cloud-Clone
  • 413.60 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1276.00 EUR
  • 492.00 EUR
  • 884.00 EUR
  • 340.00 EUR
  • 3040.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: Protein conjugation

OVA Conjugated Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

4-CPA541Hu22 Cloud-Clone
  • 178.85 EUR
  • 151.00 EUR
  • 395.68 EUR
  • 198.56 EUR
  • 297.12 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 839.20 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: Protein conjugation

OVA Conjugated Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

4-CPA541Hu23 Cloud-Clone
  • 187.81 EUR
  • 153.00 EUR
  • 429.28 EUR
  • 209.76 EUR
  • 319.52 EUR
  • 188.00 EUR
  • 923.20 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: Protein conjugation

OVA Conjugated Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

4-CPA541Hu24 Cloud-Clone
  • 178.85 EUR
  • 151.00 EUR
  • 395.68 EUR
  • 198.56 EUR
  • 297.12 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 839.20 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide expressed in: Protein conjugation


Screening and Treatment of Obstetric Anemia: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines

Iron deficiency is a major cause of anemia.1 Other causes of anemia include deficiency in nutrients (e.g., vitamin B12 and folate), inflammation, parasitic infections and disorders in hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis or red blood cell production and survival (e.g., hemoglobinopathies).

1 Iron deficiency anemia is defined as blood Hb concentrations of less than 110 g/L in the first trimester, less than 105 g/L in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and less than 100 g/L postpartum.

2 The serum ferritin level provides information about the capacity of the body to reserve iron and its concentration of less than 15 µg/L (a cut off that is associated with higher specificity) during pregnancy is diagnostic of iron deficiency anemia.

2,3 A level of less than 30 µg/L of ferritin (a cut off that is associated with higher sensitivity) should prompt treatment.

2,3 However, serum ferritin measurement may not be accurate during infection or inflammation, as it can be normal or elevated despite a low Hb concentration.

1 Iron deficiency in pregnancy has significant negative effects on both maternal and fetal outcomes, including low birthweight, prematurity, perinatal mortality, increased risk of maternal infections and lowered tolerance to blood loss and infection.1 It also affects immediate and long term neurodevelopment of infants.

4 It was found that low maternal iron intake is associated with increased risk of autism, schizophrenia and abnormal brain structure in the offspring.

4 A review reported that findings from several cross-sectional studies suggested that the prevalence of iron deficiency among pregnant Canadians and pregnant adolescents ranged from 3% to 66%.5 Given the negative impacts of iron deficiency on maternal and child health, there is still uncertainty as whether screening of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy should be part of routine care, and which type of testing (e.g., Hb or ferritin) is more effective to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. The aim of this report is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening obstetric iron deficiency in the first or second trimester using ferritin testing, and to review evidence-based guidelines for assessing and treating obstetric iron deficiency.

In this report, gender-neutral language has been used where possible in order to be inclusive of all gender identities. When reporting results from the published manuscript, gender-neutral language was not used in order to be consistent with the terms used in the source material.
The Architecture of the Human Fovea

We summarize the development, structure, different neural types and neural circuitry in the human fovea. The foveal pit is devoid of rod photoreceptors and of secondary and tertiary neurons, allowing light to directly stimulate cones and give us maximal visual acuity. The circuitry underlying the transmission to the brain occurs at the rim of the fovea. The predominant circuitry is concerned with the ‘private’ cone to midget bipolar cell and midget ganglion cell pathways.

Every cone drives two midget bipolar cells and two midget ganglion cells so that the message from a single cone is provided to the brain as a contrast between lighter signals (ON pathways) or darker signals (OFF pathways). The sharpening of this contrast message is provided by horizontal-cell feedback circuits and, in some pathways by amacrine circuitry. These midget pathways carry a concentric color and spatially opponent message from red and green cones. Blue cones are sparse, even largely missing in the foveal center while occurring at somewhat higher density than elsewhere in the cone mosaic of the foveal slope. Signals from blue cones have different pathways to ganglion cells. The best understood is through an ON-type blue-cone-selecting bipolar cell to a non-midget, small bistratified ganglion cell.

An OFF-center blue midget bipolar is known to be present in the fovea and connects to a blue OFF midget ganglion cell. Another OFF blue message is sent to a giant melanopsin ganglion cell that is present in the foveal rim area, but the circuitry driving that is less certain and possibly involves an intermediate amacrine cell. The H2 horizontal cells are thought to be feedback neurons primarily of the blue cone system.

Amacrine cells of the fovea are mostly small-field and glycinergic. The larger field GABAergic amacrines are present but more typically surround the fovea in a ring of processes, with little or no penetration into the foveal center. Thus, the small field glycinergic amacrines are important in some sort of interplay with the midget bipolar–midget ganglion cell channels. We have anatomical descriptions of their synaptology but only a few have been recorded from physiologically. Both OFF pathway and ON pathway amacrines are present in the fovea.


Measuring water exchange across the blood-brain barrier using MRI.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the transfer of solutes and essential nutrients into the brain. Growing evidence supports BBB dysfunction in a range of acute and chronic brain diseases, justifying the need for novel research and clinical tools that can non-invasively detect, characterize, and quantify BBB dysfunction in-vivo.

Many approaches already exist for measuring BBB dysfunction in man using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (e.g. dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI measurements of gadolinium leakage).

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