Brain Research Tools

Selective auditory attention detection based on effective connectivity by single-trial EEG.

Focusing attention on one speaker in an environment with lots of speakers is one of the important abilities of the human auditory system. The temporal dynamics of the attention process and how the brain precisely performs this task are yet unknown. This paper proposes a new method for the selective auditory attention detection (SAAD) from single-trial EEG signals using the brain effective connectivity and complex network analysis for two groups of listeners attending to the left or right ear.Here, the connectivity matrices of all subjects obtained from the Granger causality method are used to extract different features. Then, by employing the processes of feature selection and optimization, an optimized feature set is determined for the train of a classifier.

Among different measures of brain connectivity (i.e., segregation, integration, and centrality), the evaluation results show that the optimized feature set obtained by the combination of the centrality measures contain the most discriminative features for the classification process. The proposed SAAD method as compared with state-of-the-art attention detection approaches from the literature yields the best performance in terms of various measures.The new SAAD approach is advantageous, in the sense that the detection of attention is performed from single-trial EEG signals of each subject, without reconstructing the speech stimuli. This means that the proposed method could be employed for real-time applications such as smart hearing aid devices or brain-computer interface (BCI) systems.


The protective effect of metformin on mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic mice brain.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction and oxidative stress. The molecular mechanisms involved in diabetes-associated neurological complications remain elusive. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of metformin (MF) on regulatory networks and integrated stress responses in brain tissue of Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. STZ-induced diabetic mice were treated with MF (20 mg/kg BW), and whole brain tissue was harvested for further analysis. Protein carbonylation was measured as a marker of neuronal oxidative stress.

Protein expression of mt chaperones, maintenance proteins, and regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR) were measured by Western blot. Transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme GSTA4; mt biogenesis markers, ER stress regulators, and miR-132 and miR-148a were analysed using qPCR. The results showed that MF efficiently reduced protein carbonylation and oxidation. Mt function was improved by MF-treatment through upregulation of chaperone proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and LonP1). MF elicits the UPR to attenuate ER stress through a miR-132 repression mechanism. Additionally, MF was found to elevate deacetylases- Sirt1, Sirt3; and mt biogenesis marker PGC-1α through miR-148a repression.

This is the first study to demonstrate the epigenetic regulation of mt maintenance by MF in diabetic C57BL/6 mouse whole brain tissue. We thus conclude that MF, beyond its anti-hyperglycaemic role, mediates neuroprotection through epigenomic and integrated stress responses in diabetic mice.


Oral glutathione administration inhibits the oxidative stress and the inflammatory responses in AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in mice.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Reduced antioxidants and increased oxidative stress and inflammation are responsible for the pathological features characteristic of an AD brain. We observed decreased levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant brain antioxidant, and decreased GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratios in AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in (NL-G-F) mouse brains. Repeated oral GSH administration for 3 weeks dose-dependently increased GSH levels and restored the GSH/GSSH ratio. Consistent with the restoration of GSH levels, the levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of oxidative stress, were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of NL-G-F mice.

Additionally, inflammatory responses, such as microgliosis and increased mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, were also inhibited. Moreover, behavioral deficits including cognitive decline, depressive-like behaviors, and anxiety-related behaviors observed in NL-G-F mice were significantly improved by oral and chronic GSH administration. Taken together, our data suggest that oral GSH administration is an attractive therapeutic strategy to reduce the excessive oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the AD brain.

Brain Cytoplasmic Lysate

XBL-10145 ProSci 0.1 mg 342.6 EUR
Description: Human brain tissue cytoplasmic protein lysate was prepared by isolating the cytoplasmic protein from whole tissue homogenates using a proprietary technique. The human brain tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The cytoplasmic protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH 7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, glycerol, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the isolated brain tissue cytoplasmic protein pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The isolated brain tissue cytoplasmic protein is then Western analyzed by GAPDH antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE

GWB-CCDB51 GenWay Biotech 0.1 mg Ask for price

Brain Natriuretic Peptide

MBS352041-1Bottle MyBiosource 1Bottle 250 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide

MBS352041-5x1Bottle MyBiosource 5x1Bottle 1040 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide

MBS352043-01mL MyBiosource 0.1mL 410 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide

MBS352043-5x01mL MyBiosource 5x0.1mL 1760 EUR

Brain natriuretic peptide

HY-129067 MedChemExpress Get quote Ask for price
Description: Brain natriuretic peptide inhibits angiotensin II-induced blood pressure. Brain natriuretic peptide can be used in the control of blood pressure[1].

Sphingomyelin (Bovine Brain)

MBS393524-100mg MyBiosource 100mg 375 EUR

Sphingomyelin (Bovine Brain)

MBS393524-250mg MyBiosource 250mg 595 EUR

Sphingomyelin (Bovine Brain)

MBS393524-25mg MyBiosource 25mg 255 EUR

Sphingomyelin (Bovine Brain)

MBS393524-5x250mg MyBiosource 5x250mg 2290 EUR

Brain neurofilament Antibody

GWB-D5B302 GenWay Biotech 0.5 ml Ask for price

Rat Brain Glial Cells

ABC-TC4093 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat brain glial cells, 2-week Wistar rat

Rat Brain Nerve Cells

ABC-TC4097 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat brain nerve cells, 3-week Wistar rat

Dog Brain Genomic DNA

DG-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 210 EUR

Cat Brain Genomic DNA

FG-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 210 EUR

Human Brain Total RNA

HR-201 Zyagen 0.05mg 172 EUR

Pig Brain Genomic DNA

PG-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 177 EUR

Rat Brain Genomic DNA

RG-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 177 EUR

Brain Heart Infus 500gm

211065 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 201.78 EUR

Bovine Brain Stem cDNA*

BD-215 Zyagen 30 reactions 280 EUR

Whole Rat Brain Holder

LBC12007 Westburg each 692.15 EUR

Equine Brain, whole cDNA

ED-201 Zyagen 30 reactions 319 EUR

Fetal Brain Stem Lysate

XBL-10132 ProSci 0.1 mg 500.1 EUR
Description: Fetal human brain stem tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The fetal human brain stem tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the brain stem tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The brain stem tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Human Brain Genomic DNA  

X11001 EpiGentek
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • 10 µg
  • 10 ul

Human Brain Genomic DNA

HG-201 Zyagen 0.05mg 210 EUR

Pig Brain, Striatum cDNA*

PD-214 Zyagen 30 reactions 243 EUR

Brain Knife L381mm - EACH

INS6178 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 189 EUR

Brain Knife L254mm - EACH

INS6180 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 180.9 EUR

Rat Brain Tissue Lysate

LYSATE0002 BosterBio 200ug 180 EUR
Description: This cell lysate is prepared from Rat Brain Tissue using Boster's RIPA Lysis Buffer (AR0105) using a standard whole cell lysate protocol. The concentration was determined using the BCA assay process and then diluted using Dithiothreitol (DTT) and a reducing SDS sample loading buffer, heated for 5 minutes at 100˚C.

Mouse Brain Genomic DNA

MG-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 177 EUR

Sheep Brain Genomic DNA

SG-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 177 EUR

Rabbit Brain, whole cDNA

TD-201 Zyagen 30 reactions 243 EUR

Rat Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS135583-02mg MyBiosource 0.2mg 250 EUR

Rat Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS135583-04mg MyBiosource 0.4mg 310 EUR

Rat Brain Cortex Neurons

ABC-TC4091 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat Brain Cortex Neurons from rat (E18, 19) brain are cell suspensions of high quality primary embryonic brain neuronal cells (including glia) prepared by standardized methods, and are ready for immediate culture.

Brain Tissue Slide (Tumor)

10-302-10um ProSci 10 um 241.8 EUR

Brain Tissue Slide (Tumor)

10-302-4um ProSci 4 um 216.6 EUR

Dog Brain, Cerebellum RNA

DR-202 Zyagen 0.1mg 195 EUR

Bovine Brain Genomic DNA

BG-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 177 EUR

Chicken Brain, Whole cDNA

CD-201 Zyagen 30 reactions 243 EUR

Brain tumor tissue array

T176a TissueArray each 48 EUR
Description: Brain tumor tissue array, including pathology grade, 6 cases/24 cores, replacing T176

Mouse Brain Slice Holder

LBC12004 Westburg each 686.7 EUR

Human Brain Tumor lysate

HTL-1322 Alpha Diagnostics 1 mg 927.6 EUR

Equine Brain Genomic DNA

GE-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 210 EUR

Brain tumor tissue array

GL2083c TissueArray each 546 EUR
Description: Brain tumor tissue array, including pathology grade, 192 cases/192 cores (core size 1.0mm), replacing GL2083b

Brain tumor tissue array

GL242a TissueArray each 270 EUR
Description: Brain tumor tissue array, with normal tissue, 2 serial sections, 24 cases/48 cores replacing GL242

Brain tumor tissue array

GL243 TissueArray each 198 EUR
Description: Brain tumor tissue array, including pathology grade, 24 cases/24 cores

Brain tumor tissue array

GL803d TissueArray each 306 EUR
Description: Brain tumor tissue array,including astrocytoma, glioblastoma,oligoastrocytomas,oligodendroglioma,medulloblastoma and ependymoma,80 cases/80 cores (core size 1.5mm), replacing GL803c

OORA00527-1U - Rat BRAIN

OORA00527-1U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 60 EUR

OORA00528-1U - Rat BRAIN

OORA00528-1U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 80 EUR

Rabbit Brain Genomic DNA

TG-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 177 EUR

Monkey Brain, cDNA, Rhesus

UD-201 Zyagen 30 reactions 316 EUR

Brain Tissue Slide (Tumor)

MBS154347-10um MyBiosource 10um 210 EUR

Brain Tissue Slide (Tumor)

MBS154347-4um MyBiosource 4um 195 EUR

Brain Tissue Slide (Tumor)

MBS154347-5x10um MyBiosource 5x10um 920 EUR

Mouse Brain antibody (FITC)

60R-BR001FT Fitzgerald 2 mg 439 EUR
Description: Rabbit polyclonal Mouse Brain antibody (FITC) conjugated

Mouse Brain antibody (FITC)

60R-BR002FT Fitzgerald 2 mg 439 EUR
Description: Rabbit polyclonal Mouse Brain antibody (FITC) conjugated

Brain Tissue Slide (Normal)

10-301-10um ProSci 10 um 241.8 EUR

Brain Tissue Slide (Normal)

10-301-4um ProSci 4 um 216.6 EUR

Brain Tissue Lysate (Tumor)

1732-01 ProSci 0.1 mg 336.3 EUR
Description: Brain tumor lysate was prepared by homogenization in lysis buffer (10 mM HEPES pH7.9, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM KCl, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 10% glycerol, 1% NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors). Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% β-mercaptoethanol.

Brain Tissue Lysate (Tumor)

1732-02 ProSci 0.1 mg 336.3 EUR
Description: Brain tumor lysate was prepared by homogenization in lysis buffer (10 mM HEPES pH7.9, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM KCl, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 10% glycerol, 1% NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors). Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% β-mercaptoethanol.

Brain Tissue Lysate (Tumor)

1732-03 ProSci 0.1 mg 336.3 EUR
Description: Brain tumor lysate was prepared by homogenization in lysis buffer (10 mM HEPES pH7.9, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM KCl, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 10% glycerol, 1% NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors). Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% β-mercaptoethanol.

Human Brain Tissue Lysate

30R-AB017 Fitzgerald 150 ug 276 EUR
Description: Fresh tissue lysate isolated from human brain

Dog Brain, Cerebellum cDNA

DD-202 Zyagen 30 Reactions 280 EUR

Normal brain tissue array

BNC17011a TissueArray each 306 EUR
Description: Normal brain tissue array, 25 cases/ 80 cores, replaced by BNC17011b

BRAIN HEART INFUSION AGAR

B02-112-10kg Alphabiosciences 10 kg 1496.4 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION AGAR

B02-112-2kg Alphabiosciences 2kg 372 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION AGAR

B02-112-500g Alphabiosciences 500 g 145.2 EUR

Hamster Brain Genomic DNA

GA-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 177 EUR

Cat Brain, Cerebellum cDNA

FD-202 Zyagen 30 Reactions 280 EUR

Human Brain Total Protein

HT-201 Zyagen 1mg 176 EUR

Human Brain Tissue Lysate

IHUBRTL100UG Innovative research each 361 EUR
Description: Human Brain Tissue Lysate

OORA00527-1EA - Rat BRAIN

OORA00527-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 59 EUR

OORA00528-1EA - Rat BRAIN

OORA00528-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 79 EUR

Pig Brain, Cerebellum cDNA

PD-202 Zyagen 30 reactions 243 EUR

Mouse Brain Tissue Lysate

IMSBRTL100UG Innovative research each 245 EUR
Description: Mouse Brain Tissue Lysate

Chicken Brain Genomic DNA

GC-201 Zyagen 0.1mg 177 EUR

Mouse Brain Tissue Lysate

LYSATE0012 BosterBio 200ug 180 EUR
Description: This cell lysate is prepared from mouse brain tissue using Boster's RIPA Lysis Buffer (AR0105) using a standard whole cell lysate protocol. The concentration was determined using the BCA assay process and then diluted using Dithiothreitol (DTT) and a reducing SDS sample loading buffer, heated for 5 minutes at 100˚C.

Mouse Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS8420394-01mg MyBiosource 0.1mg 385 EUR

Mouse Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS8420394-5x01mg MyBiosource 5x0.1mg 1540 EUR

Brain Tissue Slide (Normal)

MBS154323-10um MyBiosource 10um 210 EUR

Brain Tissue Slide (Normal)

MBS154323-4um MyBiosource 4um 195 EUR

Brain Tissue Slide (Normal)

MBS154323-5x10um MyBiosource 5x10um 920 EUR

Human Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS138087-01mg MyBiosource 0.1mg 525 EUR

Human Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS138087-5x01mg MyBiosource 5x0.1mg 2180 EUR

Human Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS537313-015mg MyBiosource 0.15mg 495 EUR

Human Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS537313-5x015mg MyBiosource 5x0.15mg 2080 EUR

Mouse Brain antibody (FITC)

MBS534763-2mg MyBiosource 2mg 730 EUR

Mouse Brain antibody (FITC)

MBS534763-5x2mg MyBiosource 5x2mg 3125 EUR

Mouse Brain antibody (FITC)

MBS535405-2mg MyBiosource 2mg 730 EUR

Mouse Brain antibody (FITC)

MBS535405-5x2mg MyBiosource 5x2mg 3125 EUR

Brain Heart Infusion Agar

HY-157375 MedChemExpress Get quote Ask for price
Description: Brain Heart Infusion Agar is growth medium for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms[1].

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (FITC)

MBS6249443-01mL MyBiosource 0.1(mL 1010 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (FITC)

MBS6249443-5x01mL MyBiosource 5x0.1mL 4405 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (HRP)

MBS6250345-01mL MyBiosource 0.1(mL 1010 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (HRP)

MBS6250345-5x01mL MyBiosource 5x0.1mL 4405 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (PE)

MBS6251372-01mL MyBiosource 0.1(mL 1010 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (PE)

MBS6251372-5x01mL MyBiosource 5x0.1mL 4405 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (AP)

MBS6247405-01mL MyBiosource 0.1(mL 1010 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (AP)

MBS6247405-5x01mL MyBiosource 5x0.1mL 4405 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (APC)

MBS6268263-01mL MyBiosource 0.1mL 1010 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (APC)

MBS6268263-5x01mL MyBiosource 5x0.1mL 4405 EUR

Rat Brain Striatum Neurons

ABC-TC4099 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat Brain Striatum Neurons from rat (E18, 19) brain are cell suspensions of high quality primary embryonic brain neuronal cells (including glia) prepared by standardized methods, and are ready for immediate culture.

Brain Tissue Lysate (Normal)

1731-01 ProSci 0.1 mg 260.7 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% β-mercaptoethanol.

Brain Tissue Lysate (Normal)

1731-02 ProSci 0.1 mg 260.7 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% β-mercaptoethanol.

Brain Tissue Lysate (Normal)

1731-03 ProSci 0.1 mg 260.7 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% β-mercaptoethanol.

Dog Brain, Hippocampus cDNA*

DD-203 Zyagen 30 Reactions 319 EUR

Spectrin alpha chain, brain

AP87793 SAB 1mg 2640 EUR

Spectrin alpha chain, brain

AP87851 SAB 1mg 2640 EUR

Spectrin alpha chain, brain

AP88414 SAB 1mg 2640 EUR

Spectrin alpha chain, brain

AP78470 SAB 1mg 2640 EUR

Bovine Brain, Striatum cDNA*

BD-214 Zyagen 30 reactions 280 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION BROTH

B02-113-10kg Alphabiosciences 10 kg 1466.4 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION BROTH

B02-113-2Kg Alphabiosciences 2 Kg 366 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION BROTH

B02-113-500g Alphabiosciences 500 g 142.8 EUR

cDNA - Liver Cirrhosis: Brain

C1236035Lcs Biochain 40 reactions 802 EUR

RFP- Human Brain Astrocytes

HBMP203 Alphabioregen 1ml frozen Vial 850 EUR

Cat Brain, Hippocampus cDNA

FD-203 Zyagen 30 Reactions 319 EUR

Human Brain Astrocytes (HBA)

HMP202 Neuromics 500,000+ cells - Frozen 1296 EUR

Bovine Brain Tissue Lysate

IBOBRTL100UG Innovative research each 541 EUR
Description: Bovine Brain Tissue Lysate

Rabbit Brain Tissue Lysate

IRBBRTL100UG Innovative research each 541 EUR
Description: Rabbit Brain Tissue Lysate

Brain Peptide (Bees) Library

L-007 PHOENIX PEPTIDE 51 peptides 6456.24 EUR

Rabbit Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS8421240-01mg MyBiosource 0.1mg 745 EUR

Rabbit Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS8421240-5x01mg MyBiosource 5x0.1mg 3165 EUR

Bovine Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS136214-01mg MyBiosource 0.1mg 745 EUR

Bovine Brain Tissue Lysate

MBS136214-5x01mg MyBiosource 5x0.1mg 3165 EUR

Human Brain Astrocytes (HBA)

MBS556034-INQUIRE MyBiosource INQUIRE Ask for price

Human Brain Astrocytes (HBA)

MBS556035-INQUIRE MyBiosource INQUIRE Ask for price

Brain Heart Infusion Broth

HY-157355 MedChemExpress Get quote Ask for price
Description: Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI) is suitable for microbiological culture (For example: Anopheles arabiensis).

BOVINE, BRAIN, STRIPPED, FRESH

8600806 Lampire Biologicals Laboratories 1EA 206.18 EUR

Human Brain Astrocyte Cells

ABC-TC3522 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Human Brain Astrocyte Cells were initiated by elutriation of dispase dissociated normal human brain cortex tissue. Astrocytes represent the most numerous microglial cell population in the cortical brain: the name "Astrocyte" derives from the stellate morphology of the cells in vivo. Astrocyte cells may be involved in extracellular ionic regulation, response to injury, and interact with pericyte cells and with donor-paired microvascular endothelial cells. Primary Human Brain Astrocyte Cells have their origin in the same donor tissue as Primary Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.These cells were originated using Complete Serum-Free Medium Kit With AcceSup™, are available at <12 Cumulative Population Doublings (CPD) in vitro [Passage 3] and were cryopreserved in aliquots of ~1.5×10^6 cells. This vial will initiate a Passage 4 cell culture in a 75cm2 flask.

Rat Brain Cortex Astrocytes

ABC-TC4090 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat Brain Cortex Astrocytes are obtained from rat brain, passaged once and prepared as cell suspensions for shipment on dry ice. Each vial contains approximately 1 million cells. Astrocytes can be easily thawed and cultured.

Dog Brain, Hypothalamus cDNA*

DD-204 Zyagen 30 Reactions 319 EUR

Nitric oxide synthase, brain

AP78598 SAB 1mg 2640 EUR

Nitric oxide synthase, brain

AP85931 SAB 1mg 2640 EUR

Nitric oxide synthase, brain

AP86013 SAB 1mg 2640 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION SOLIDS

B02-129-10kg Alphabiosciences 10 kg 1203.6 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION SOLIDS

B02-129-2Kg Alphabiosciences 2 Kg 308.4 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION SOLIDS

B02-129-500g Alphabiosciences 500 g 124.8 EUR

RFP-Human Brain Astrocyte

ABC-FC0039 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: HBAs are isolated from normal human brain cortical tissue. RFP-HBAs are selected from Zeocin resistant HBAs after infected with RFP expressing lentiviral particles. The cells are shipped in frozen vials (the cells are provided @ passage 3). Astrocytes Growth Medium is recommended for cell culture and these cells have a minimum average population doubling levels 8 when cultured following the detailed protocol described below.

Rabbit brain acetone powder

RM3707-10G EWC Diagnostics 1 unit 288.62 EUR
Description: Rabbit brain acetone powder

Brain Membrane Tumor Lysate

XBL-10257 ProSci 0.1 mg 1023 EUR
Description: Human brain tissue membrane protein lysate was prepared by isolating the membrane protein from whole tissue homogenates using a proprietary technique. The human brain tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The membrane protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH 7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the isolated brain tissue membrane protein pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The isolated brain tissue membrane protein is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody to confirm there is no signal or very weak signal.

Mouse Brain Nuclear Extract

X12007 EpiGentek 500 µg Ask for price

Cat Brain, Hypothalamus cDNA

FD-204 Zyagen 30 Reactions 319 EUR

OORA00473-10U - MOUSE BRAIN

OORA00473-10U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 55 EUR

OORA00473-1EA - MOUSE BRAIN

OORA00473-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 59 EUR

OORA00497-1U - Rabbit BRAIN

OORA00497-1U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 255 EUR

OORA00498-1U - Rabbit BRAIN

OORA00498-1U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 255 EUR

OORA00499-1U - Rabbit BRAIN

OORA00499-1U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 270 EUR

Pig Brain, Hypothalamus cDNA*

PD-204 Zyagen 30 reactions 280 EUR

MiniPig Brain, Striatum cDNA

ND-214 Zyagen 30 reactions 446 EUR

Sheep Brain, Cerebellum cDNA

SD-202 Zyagen 30 reactions 243 EUR

Human Brain Microglia Cells

cAP-0040 Angio Proteomie 1Frozen Vial 742.5 EUR

Human Brain Astrocyte Cells

CSC-C4572X Creative Bioarray One Frozen vial Ask for price

Tubulin (Bovine Brain) Lysate

MBS474146-01mL MyBiosource 0.1mL 200 EUR

Tubulin (Bovine Brain) Lysate

MBS474146-5x01mL MyBiosource 5x0.1mL 740 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Human (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein)

MBS639062-01mg MyBiosource 0.1mg 485 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Human (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein)

MBS639062-5x01mg MyBiosource 5x0.1mg 2030 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (Biotin)

MBS6248438-01mL MyBiosource 0.1(mL 1010 EUR

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Brain Natriuretic Peptide 32, BNP 32, Gamma Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Natriuretic Peptide Brain Type, Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B, Natriuretic Peptides B, NPPB Protein) (Biotin)

MBS6248438-5x01mL MyBiosource 5x0.1mL 4405 EUR

PORCINE, BRAIN, STRIPPED, FRESH

8604906 Lampire Biologicals Laboratories 1EA 191.54 EUR

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Calmodulin from Bovine Brain

22060022-1 Glycomatrix 0.5 mg 97.43 EUR


Screening and Treatment of Obstetric Anemia: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines

Iron deficiency is a major cause of anemia.1 Other causes of anemia include deficiency in nutrients (e.g., vitamin B12 and folate), inflammation, parasitic infections and disorders in hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis or red blood cell production and survival (e.g., hemoglobinopathies).

1 Iron deficiency anemia is defined as blood Hb concentrations of less than 110 g/L in the first trimester, less than 105 g/L in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and less than 100 g/L postpartum.

2 The serum ferritin level provides information about the capacity of the body to reserve iron and its concentration of less than 15 µg/L (a cut off that is associated with higher specificity) during pregnancy is diagnostic of iron deficiency anemia.

2,3 A level of less than 30 µg/L of ferritin (a cut off that is associated with higher sensitivity) should prompt treatment.

2,3 However, serum ferritin measurement may not be accurate during infection or inflammation, as it can be normal or elevated despite a low Hb concentration.

1 Iron deficiency in pregnancy has significant negative effects on both maternal and fetal outcomes, including low birthweight, prematurity, perinatal mortality, increased risk of maternal infections and lowered tolerance to blood loss and infection.1 It also affects immediate and long term neurodevelopment of infants.

4 It was found that low maternal iron intake is associated with increased risk of autism, schizophrenia and abnormal brain structure in the offspring.

4 A review reported that findings from several cross-sectional studies suggested that the prevalence of iron deficiency among pregnant Canadians and pregnant adolescents ranged from 3% to 66%.5 Given the negative impacts of iron deficiency on maternal and child health, there is still uncertainty as whether screening of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy should be part of routine care, and which type of testing (e.g., Hb or ferritin) is more effective to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. The aim of this report is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening obstetric iron deficiency in the first or second trimester using ferritin testing, and to review evidence-based guidelines for assessing and treating obstetric iron deficiency.

In this report, gender-neutral language has been used where possible in order to be inclusive of all gender identities. When reporting results from the published manuscript, gender-neutral language was not used in order to be consistent with the terms used in the source material.
The Architecture of the Human Fovea

We summarize the development, structure, different neural types and neural circuitry in the human fovea. The foveal pit is devoid of rod photoreceptors and of secondary and tertiary neurons, allowing light to directly stimulate cones and give us maximal visual acuity. The circuitry underlying the transmission to the brain occurs at the rim of the fovea. The predominant circuitry is concerned with the ‘private’ cone to midget bipolar cell and midget ganglion cell pathways.

Every cone drives two midget bipolar cells and two midget ganglion cells so that the message from a single cone is provided to the brain as a contrast between lighter signals (ON pathways) or darker signals (OFF pathways). The sharpening of this contrast message is provided by horizontal-cell feedback circuits and, in some pathways by amacrine circuitry. These midget pathways carry a concentric color and spatially opponent message from red and green cones. Blue cones are sparse, even largely missing in the foveal center while occurring at somewhat higher density than elsewhere in the cone mosaic of the foveal slope. Signals from blue cones have different pathways to ganglion cells. The best understood is through an ON-type blue-cone-selecting bipolar cell to a non-midget, small bistratified ganglion cell.

An OFF-center blue midget bipolar is known to be present in the fovea and connects to a blue OFF midget ganglion cell. Another OFF blue message is sent to a giant melanopsin ganglion cell that is present in the foveal rim area, but the circuitry driving that is less certain and possibly involves an intermediate amacrine cell. The H2 horizontal cells are thought to be feedback neurons primarily of the blue cone system.

Amacrine cells of the fovea are mostly small-field and glycinergic. The larger field GABAergic amacrines are present but more typically surround the fovea in a ring of processes, with little or no penetration into the foveal center. Thus, the small field glycinergic amacrines are important in some sort of interplay with the midget bipolar–midget ganglion cell channels. We have anatomical descriptions of their synaptology but only a few have been recorded from physiologically. Both OFF pathway and ON pathway amacrines are present in the fovea.


Measuring water exchange across the blood-brain barrier using MRI.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the transfer of solutes and essential nutrients into the brain. Growing evidence supports BBB dysfunction in a range of acute and chronic brain diseases, justifying the need for novel research and clinical tools that can non-invasively detect, characterize, and quantify BBB dysfunction in-vivo.

Many approaches already exist for measuring BBB dysfunction in man using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (e.g. dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI measurements of gadolinium leakage).

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