Brain Research Tools

Selective auditory attention detection based on effective connectivity by single-trial EEG.

Focusing attention on one speaker in an environment with lots of speakers is one of the important abilities of the human auditory system. The temporal dynamics of the attention process and how the brain precisely performs this task are yet unknown. This paper proposes a new method for the selective auditory attention detection (SAAD) from single-trial EEG signals using the brain effective connectivity and complex network analysis for two groups of listeners attending to the left or right ear.Here, the connectivity matrices of all subjects obtained from the Granger causality method are used to extract different features. Then, by employing the processes of feature selection and optimization, an optimized feature set is determined for the train of a classifier.

Among different measures of brain connectivity (i.e., segregation, integration, and centrality), the evaluation results show that the optimized feature set obtained by the combination of the centrality measures contain the most discriminative features for the classification process. The proposed SAAD method as compared with state-of-the-art attention detection approaches from the literature yields the best performance in terms of various measures.The new SAAD approach is advantageous, in the sense that the detection of attention is performed from single-trial EEG signals of each subject, without reconstructing the speech stimuli. This means that the proposed method could be employed for real-time applications such as smart hearing aid devices or brain-computer interface (BCI) systems.


The protective effect of metformin on mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic mice brain.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction and oxidative stress. The molecular mechanisms involved in diabetes-associated neurological complications remain elusive. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of metformin (MF) on regulatory networks and integrated stress responses in brain tissue of Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. STZ-induced diabetic mice were treated with MF (20 mg/kg BW), and whole brain tissue was harvested for further analysis. Protein carbonylation was measured as a marker of neuronal oxidative stress.

Protein expression of mt chaperones, maintenance proteins, and regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR) were measured by Western blot. Transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme GSTA4; mt biogenesis markers, ER stress regulators, and miR-132 and miR-148a were analysed using qPCR. The results showed that MF efficiently reduced protein carbonylation and oxidation. Mt function was improved by MF-treatment through upregulation of chaperone proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and LonP1). MF elicits the UPR to attenuate ER stress through a miR-132 repression mechanism. Additionally, MF was found to elevate deacetylases- Sirt1, Sirt3; and mt biogenesis marker PGC-1α through miR-148a repression.

This is the first study to demonstrate the epigenetic regulation of mt maintenance by MF in diabetic C57BL/6 mouse whole brain tissue. We thus conclude that MF, beyond its anti-hyperglycaemic role, mediates neuroprotection through epigenomic and integrated stress responses in diabetic mice.


Oral glutathione administration inhibits the oxidative stress and the inflammatory responses in AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in mice.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Reduced antioxidants and increased oxidative stress and inflammation are responsible for the pathological features characteristic of an AD brain. We observed decreased levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant brain antioxidant, and decreased GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratios in AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in (NL-G-F) mouse brains. Repeated oral GSH administration for 3 weeks dose-dependently increased GSH levels and restored the GSH/GSSH ratio. Consistent with the restoration of GSH levels, the levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of oxidative stress, were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of NL-G-F mice.

Additionally, inflammatory responses, such as microgliosis and increased mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, were also inhibited. Moreover, behavioral deficits including cognitive decline, depressive-like behaviors, and anxiety-related behaviors observed in NL-G-F mice were significantly improved by oral and chronic GSH administration. Taken together, our data suggest that oral GSH administration is an attractive therapeutic strategy to reduce the excessive oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the AD brain.

BRAIN HEART INFUSION BROTH

B02-113-10kg Alphabiosciences 10 kg 1466.4 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION BROTH

B02-113-2Kg Alphabiosciences 2 Kg 366 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION BROTH

B02-113-500g Alphabiosciences 500 g 142.8 EUR

Brain Tissue Lysate (Normal)

1731-01 ProSci 0.1 mg 260.7 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% β-mercaptoethanol.

Brain Tissue Lysate (Normal)

1731-02 ProSci 0.1 mg 260.7 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% β-mercaptoethanol.

Brain Tissue Lysate (Normal)

1731-03 ProSci 0.1 mg 260.7 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% β-mercaptoethanol.

Bacto Brain Heart Infusion

237500 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 175.2 EUR

cDNA - Liver Cirrhosis: Brain

C1236035Lcs Biochain 40 reactions 729 EUR

Brain Heart Infusion Broth

MED1434 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 110.4 EUR

Human Brain Astrocytes (HBA)

HMP202 Neuromics 500,000+ cells - Frozen 1296 EUR

Rabbit Brain Tissue Lysate

IRBBRTL100UG Innovative research each 541 EUR
Description: Rabbit Brain Tissue Lysate

Rat Brain Striatum Neurons

ABC-TC4099 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat Brain Striatum Neurons from rat (E18, 19) brain are cell suspensions of high quality primary embryonic brain neuronal cells (including glia) prepared by standardized methods, and are ready for immediate culture.

Bovine Brain Tissue Lysate

IBOBRTL100UG Innovative research each 541 EUR
Description: Bovine Brain Tissue Lysate

BRAIN HEART INFUSION SOLIDS

B02-129-10kg Alphabiosciences 10 kg 1203.6 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION SOLIDS

B02-129-2Kg Alphabiosciences 2 Kg 308.4 EUR

BRAIN HEART INFUSION SOLIDS

B02-129-500g Alphabiosciences 500 g 124.8 EUR

RFP-Human Brain Astrocyte

ABC-FC0039 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: HBAs are isolated from normal human brain cortical tissue. RFP-HBAs are selected from Zeocin resistant HBAs after infected with RFP expressing lentiviral particles. The cells are shipped in frozen vials (the cells are provided @ passage 3). Astrocytes Growth Medium is recommended for cell culture and these cells have a minimum average population doubling levels 8 when cultured following the detailed protocol described below.

Mouse Brain Nuclear Extract

X12007 EpiGentek 500 µg Ask for price

Brain Membrane Tumor Lysate

XBL-10257 ProSci 0.1 mg 1023 EUR
Description: Human brain tissue membrane protein lysate was prepared by isolating the membrane protein from whole tissue homogenates using a proprietary technique. The human brain tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The membrane protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH 7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the isolated brain tissue membrane protein pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The isolated brain tissue membrane protein is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody to confirm there is no signal or very weak signal.

Human Brain Astrocyte Cells

ABC-TC3522 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Human Brain Astrocyte Cells were initiated by elutriation of dispase dissociated normal human brain cortex tissue. Astrocytes represent the most numerous microglial cell population in the cortical brain: the name "Astrocyte" derives from the stellate morphology of the cells in vivo. Astrocyte cells may be involved in extracellular ionic regulation, response to injury, and interact with pericyte cells and with donor-paired microvascular endothelial cells. Primary Human Brain Astrocyte Cells have their origin in the same donor tissue as Primary Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.These cells were originated using Complete Serum-Free Medium Kit With AcceSup™, are available at <12 Cumulative Population Doublings (CPD) in vitro [Passage 3] and were cryopreserved in aliquots of ~1.5×10^6 cells. This vial will initiate a Passage 4 cell culture in a 75cm2 flask.

Rat Brain Cortex Astrocytes

ABC-TC4090 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat Brain Cortex Astrocytes are obtained from rat brain, passaged once and prepared as cell suspensions for shipment on dry ice. Each vial contains approximately 1 million cells. Astrocytes can be easily thawed and cultured.

OORA00473-10U - MOUSE BRAIN

OORA00473-10U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 55 EUR

OORA00473-1EA - MOUSE BRAIN

OORA00473-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 59 EUR

OORA00497-1U - Rabbit BRAIN

OORA00497-1U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 255 EUR

OORA00498-1U - Rabbit BRAIN

OORA00498-1U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 255 EUR

OORA00499-1U - Rabbit BRAIN

OORA00499-1U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 270 EUR

cDNA - Alzheimer's Disease: Brain

C1236035Alz Biochain 40 reactions 729 EUR

cDNA - Parkinson's Disease: Brain

C1236035Par Biochain 40 reactions 729 EUR

GFP-Human Brain Astrocytes

ABC-FC0038 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: HBAs are isolated from normal human brain cortical tissue. GFP-HBAs are selected from puromycin resistant HBAs after infected with GFP Expressing lentiviral particles. The cells are shipped in frozen vials (the cells are provided @ passage 3). Astrocytes Growth Medium is recommended for cell culture and these cells have a minimum average population doubling levels 8 when cultured following the detailed protocol described below.

Brain Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10124 ProSci 0.1 mg 796.2 EUR
Description: Human brain tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human brain tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the brain tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The brain tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

OORA00497-1EA - Rabbit BRAIN

OORA00497-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 239 EUR

OORA00498-1EA - Rabbit BRAIN

OORA00498-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 239 EUR

OORA00499-1EA - Rabbit BRAIN

OORA00499-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 249 EUR

Calmodulin from Bovine Brain

22060022-1 Bio-WORLD 0.5 mg 97.43 EUR

Calmodulin from Bovine Brain

22060022-2 Bio-WORLD 1 mg 175.97 EUR

Calmodulin from Bovine Brain

22060022-3 Bio-WORLD 5 mg 627.46 EUR

CK BRAIN STRIPPED 50 EA*

43005-2 Pel-Freez 50 EA 769.66 EUR

Brain glioblastoma (most of GBM) tissue array with normal brain tissue as control

GL806g TissueArray each 354 EUR
Description: Brain glioblastoma (most of GBM) tissue array with normal brain tissue as control, including WHO histological classification and pathology grade, 40 cases/80 cores (core size 1.5mm), replacing GL806f

Creatine Kinase Brain Protein

20-abx073153 Abbexa
  • 4101.60 EUR
  • 393.60 EUR
  • 276.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 20 ug
  • 5 ug

Brain Creatine Kinase Peptide

45-339P ProSci 0.1 mg 405.6 EUR
Description: CKB / Brain Creatine Kinase Peptide

Rat Brain Hippocampus Neurons

ABC-TC4095 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat Brain Hippocampus Neurons from rat (E18, 19) brain are cell suspensions of high quality primary embryonic brain neuronal cells (including glia) prepared by standardized methods, and are ready for immediate culture.

Rat Brain Striatum Astrocytes

ABC-TC4098 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat Brain Striatum Astrocytes are obtained from rat brain, passaged once and prepared as cell suspensions for shipment on dry ice. Each vial contains approximately 1 million cells. Astrocytes can be easily thawed and cultured.

OORA00444-10U - Hamster BRAIN

OORA00444-10U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 90 EUR

OORA00444-1EA - Hamster BRAIN

OORA00444-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 89 EUR

OORA00445-10U - Hamster BRAIN

OORA00445-10U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 75 EUR

OORA00445-1EA - Hamster BRAIN

OORA00445-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 69 EUR

OORA00446-10U - Hamster BRAIN

OORA00446-10U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 100 EUR

OORA00446-1EA - Hamster BRAIN

OORA00446-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 99 EUR

Brain Lysate (0 Days Old)

1403-0 ProSci 0.1 mg 229.2 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate (0 Days Old) was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 50 mM DTT.

Brain Lysate (14 Days Old)

1403-14 ProSci 0.1 mg 229.2 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate (14 Days Old) was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 50 mM DTT.

Brain Lysate (7 Days Old)

1403-7 ProSci 0.1 mg 229.2 EUR
Description: Brain tissue lysate (7 Days Old) was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 50 mM DTT.

Brain Creatine Kinase Antibody

R34577-100UG NSJ Bioreagents 100 ug 339.15 EUR
Description: Additional name(s) for this target protein: CKB

Human Brain Vascular Pericytes

ABC-TC3526 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Pericytes are contractile smooth muscle-like cells that cover the abluminal surface of microvessels. They are most abundant on venules and are common on capillaries. The pericytes population is highly variable between different tissues and organs and appears to show functional heterogeneity. Three major functional roles have been ascribed to pericytes associated with central nervous system microvescular-contractility, regulation of endothelial cell activity, and macrophage activity. There is also evidence that pericytes are involved in the transport across the blood-brain barrier and the regulation of vascular permeability. An important role for pericytes in pathology has been indicated in hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, Alzheimerr’s disease, multiple sclerosis and central nervous system tumor formation.HBVP from Gentaur Research Laboratories are isolated from human brain tissue. HBVP are cryopreserved at secondary culture after purification and delivered frozen. Each vial contains 5×10^5 cells in 1 ml volume. HBVP are characterized by immunofluorescent method with antibodies to ?-smooth muscle actin. HBVP are negative for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, mycoplasma, bacteria, yeast and fungi. HBVP are guaranteed to further expand for 15 population doublings in the condition provided by Gentaur Research Laboratories.

Rat Brain Vascular Fibroblasts

ABC-TC4100 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat Primary Brain Vascular Fibroblasts from Gentaur are isolated from tissue of neonatal Sprague-Dawley Rats. Rat Primary Brain Vascular Fibroblasts are grown in T75 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based solution for 0.5 hour and incubated in Gentaur's Cell Culture Medium for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and is delivered frozen.Cells are negative for bacteria, yeast, fungi, and mycoplasma. Rat Primary Brain Vascular Fibroblasts are tested for expression of marker using the antibody of anti-FSP1/S100A4 by immunofluorescence staining and can be expanded by 2-4 passages at a split ratio of 1:2 under the cell culture conditions specified by Gentaur. Repeated freezing and thawing of cells is not recommended.Standard biochemical procedures performed with fibroblast cultures include the assays of cell to cell interaction, PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescent staining, immunofluorescent flow cytometry or generating cell derivatives for desired research applications.

OCPB00024-100UG - Brain Lysate

OCPB00024-100UG Aviva Systems Biology 0.1mg 139 EUR

OCPB00025-100UG - Brain Lysate

OCPB00025-100UG Aviva Systems Biology 0.1mg 139 EUR

OCPB00026-100UG - Brain Lysate

OCPB00026-100UG Aviva Systems Biology 0.1mg 139 EUR

OCPB00064-100UG - Brain Lysate

OCPB00064-100UG Aviva Systems Biology 0.1mg 139 EUR

OCPB00084-100UG - Brain Lysate

OCPB00084-100UG Aviva Systems Biology 0.1mg 139 EUR

OCPB00190-100UG - Brain Lysate

OCPB00190-100UG Aviva Systems Biology 0.1mg 279 EUR

OCPB00314-100UG - Brain Lysate

OCPB00314-100UG Aviva Systems Biology 0.1mg 279 EUR

OCPB00423-100UG - Brain Lysate

OCPB00423-100UG Aviva Systems Biology 0.1mg 279 EUR

T-Box, Brain, 1 Antibody

20-abx116010 Abbexa
  • 878.40 EUR
  • 477.60 EUR
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul

CK BRAIN UNSTRIPPED 50 EA*

43004-2 Pel-Freez 50 EA 666.55 EUR

cDNA - Dementia: Brain: Hippocampus

C1236052Dem Biochain 40 reactions 886 EUR

Mouse Brain Hippocampal Neurons

ABC-TC3918 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Mouse Hippopcampal Neurons are isolated from E16-17, CD-1 mice. The hippocampus is a major component of the brains of humans and other mammals. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in long-term memory and spatial navigation.

Pig BRAIN UNSTRIPPED 5 EA*

59404-2 Pel-Freez 5 EA 389.89 EUR

Rat Brain Hippocampus Astrocytes

ABC-TC4094 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Rat Brain Hippocampus Astrocytes are obtained from rat brain, passaged once and prepared as cell suspensions for shipment on dry ice. Each vial contains approximately 1 million cells. Astrocytes can be easily thawed and cultured.

Brain Derived Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (1-11); FGF acidic (1-11) (bovine brain)

5-00863 CHI Scientific 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Brain Derived Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (102-111); FGF acidic (102-111) (bovine brain)

5-00864 CHI Scientific 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Rabbit Brain Cephalin 5 mL

41052-1 Pel-Freez 5mL 224.16 EUR

Rabbit Brain Cephalin 10 mL

41052-2 Pel-Freez 10mL 320.74 EUR

Rabbit Brain Cephalin 100 mL

41052-3 Pel-Freez 100mL 1697.51 EUR

Human Brain S-100 Protein

abx060914-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1796.4 EUR

Bovine BRAIN STRIPPED 5 EA*

57105-1 Pel-Freez 5 EA 977.15 EUR

Rat Brain Whole Cell Lysate

IRTBRTLW500UG Innovative research each 327 EUR
Description: Rat Brain Whole Cell Lysate

Tilapia Brain Cell Line (TiB)

T5404 ABM 1x10^6 cells / 1.0 ml 3950 EUR

cDNA - Depression: Brain: Hippocampus

C1236052Dep Biochain 40 reactions 886 EUR

cDNA - Rat Normal Tissue: Brain

C1434035 Biochain 40 reactions 385 EUR

cDNA - Dog Normal Tissue: Brain

C1734035 Biochain 40 reactions 385 EUR

Human Brain S-100B Protein

abx060915-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 4202.4 EUR

S-100?? Protein, Bovine Brain

P1275-100 Biovision each 483.6 EUR

cDNA - Human Tumor Tissue: Brain

C1235035-10 Biochain 10 reactions 274 EUR

Bovine BRAIN UNSTRIPPED 5 EA*

57104-1 Pel-Freez 5 EA 838.81 EUR

Brain Expressed X-Linked 1

PR27258 Neuromics 2 ug 229.2 EUR

Brain Heart Infusion (BHI)Agar

MED1432 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 100.8 EUR

Brain tumor tissue test array

GL1003 TissueArray each 306 EUR
Description: Brain tumor tissue test array, including pathology grade, 25 cases/100 cores

Rat Brain Whole tissue lysate

RAL-1463 Alpha Diagnostics 1 mg 628.8 EUR

Brain Protein I3 (BRI3) Antibody

20-abx148695 Abbexa
  • 510.00 EUR
  • 410.40 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

cDNA - Mouse Normal Tissue: Brain

C1334035 Biochain 40 reactions 385 EUR

Brain Protein I3 (BRI3) Antibody

20-abx007785 Abbexa
  • 360.00 EUR
  • 526.80 EUR
  • 226.80 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 30 ul

Disposable Brain Knife 12 Inch

INS6158 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10 91.39 EUR

Phosphorylase, Glycogen; Brain Antibody

20-abx114510 Abbexa
  • 878.40 EUR
  • 477.60 EUR
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul

Human Blood Brain Barrier Model

3D45002 Neuromics 6 well 2847.6 EUR

Brain Protein 44 (BRP44) Antibody

20-abx014275 Abbexa
  • 376.80 EUR
  • 117.60 EUR
  • 477.60 EUR
  • 594.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 200 ug
  • 300 µg

Mouse Brain Whole tissue lysate

MAL-1403 Alpha Diagnostics 1 mg 628.8 EUR

Human Brain Tumor Tissue Lysate

IHUBRTLT100UG Innovative research each 361 EUR
Description: Human Brain Tumor Tissue Lysate

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx241064 Abbexa
  • 493.20 EUR
  • 360.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx241831 Abbexa
  • 493.20 EUR
  • 360.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx174701 Abbexa
  • 1028.40 EUR
  • 526.80 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx178525 Abbexa
  • 1479.60 EUR
  • 710.40 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx178526 Abbexa
  • 1479.60 EUR
  • 710.40 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx327675 Abbexa
  • 376.80 EUR
  • 292.80 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Active Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB)

4-APC030Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 925.32 EUR
  • 370.80 EUR
  • 3139.97 EUR
  • 1126.66 EUR
  • 2133.31 EUR
  • 694.80 EUR
  • 7669.92 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Creatine Kinase, Brain expressed in: Available from E.coli, Yeast, Baculovirus and Mammalian cells

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx129174 Abbexa
  • 510.00 EUR
  • 159.60 EUR
  • 1446.00 EUR
  • 693.60 EUR
  • 393.60 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx338616 Abbexa
  • 493.20 EUR
  • 2214.00 EUR
  • 718.80 EUR
  • 218.40 EUR
  • 360.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A) Antibody

20-abx330058 Abbexa
  • 376.80 EUR
  • 292.80 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Native Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB)

4-NPC030Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 603.84 EUR
  • 285.60 EUR
  • 1934.40 EUR
  • 724.80 EUR
  • 1329.60 EUR
  • 480.00 EUR
  • 4656.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Mouse Creatine Kinase, Brain expressed in: Mouse

Human Brain Insula Tissue Lysate

IHUBRITL100UG Innovative research each 1067 EUR
Description: Human Brain Insula Tissue Lysate

OORA00414-10U - GUINEA PIG BRAIN

OORA00414-10U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 105 EUR

OORA00414-1EA - GUINEA PIG BRAIN

OORA00414-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 99 EUR

OORA00415-10U - GUINEA PIG BRAIN

OORA00415-10U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 80 EUR

OORA00415-1EA - GUINEA PIG BRAIN

OORA00415-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 79 EUR

OORA00416-10U - GUINEA PIG BRAIN

OORA00416-10U Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 115 EUR

OORA00416-1EA - GUINEA PIG BRAIN

OORA00416-1EA Aviva Systems Biology 1Each 109 EUR

Rat Brain PrimaCell1: Normal Brain Fibroblasts Growth Supplements with Serum (for 500 ml medium)

9-26011 CHI Scientific 1 Set Ask for price

Brain Finger Protein (BFP) Antibody

20-abx175616 Abbexa
  • 1412.40 EUR
  • 693.60 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Human Brain Medulla Tissue Lysate

30R-AM039 Fitzgerald 150 ug 282 EUR
Description: Fresh tissue lysate isolated from the medulla of human brain

Brain Finger Protein (BFP) Antibody

20-abx128757 Abbexa
  • 493.20 EUR
  • 159.60 EUR
  • 1378.80 EUR
  • 678.00 EUR
  • 376.80 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Finger Protein (BFP) Antibody

20-abx129364 Abbexa
  • 510.00 EUR
  • 159.60 EUR
  • 1412.40 EUR
  • 693.60 EUR
  • 393.60 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Brain Finger Protein (BFP) Antibody

20-abx130270 Abbexa
  • 526.80 EUR
  • 159.60 EUR
  • 1479.60 EUR
  • 710.40 EUR
  • 393.60 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

cDNA - Alzheimer's Disease: Brain: Pons

C1236071Alz Biochain 40 reactions 729 EUR

Human Brain Cancer Primer Library

HBRC-I Real Time Primers 1 set 657.6 EUR

Human Brain Cortex Pericyte Cells

ABC-TC3523 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Primary Human Brain Microvascular Pericyte Cells were initiated by elutriation from normal human brain cortical tissue.These cells were originated using Complete Serum-Free Medium Kit With AcceSup™, are available at <6 Cumulative Population Doublings (CPD) in vitro [Passage 2] and were cryopreserved in aliquots of ~1.5×10^6 cells. This vial will initiate a Passage 3 cell culture in a 75cm2 flask.

Total RNA - Alzheimer's Disease: Brain

R1236035Alz-50 Biochain 50 ug 421.2 EUR

Monkey Rhesus Brain Tissue Lysate

IMNRSBRTL100UG Innovative research each 541 EUR
Description: Monkey Rhesus Brain Tissue Lysate

Mouse Brain PrimaCell1: Normal Brain Fibroblasts Growth Supplements with Serum (for 500 ml medium)

9-33010 CHI Scientific 1 Set Ask for price

Human Brain PrimaCell1: Normal Brain Fibroblasts Growth Supplements with Serum (for 500 ml medium)

9-47013 CHI Scientific 1 Set Ask for price

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx176032 Abbexa
  • 1479.60 EUR
  • 710.40 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx171942 Abbexa
  • 1028.40 EUR
  • 526.80 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx149355 Abbexa
  • 510.00 EUR
  • 410.40 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx111815 Abbexa
  • 878.40 EUR
  • 477.60 EUR
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

abx018666-100ul Abbexa 100 ul 410.4 EUR

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

abx033150-400ul Abbexa 400 ul 627.6 EUR

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

abx033150-80l Abbexa 80 µl 343.2 EUR

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx102119 Abbexa
  • 510.00 EUR
  • 159.60 EUR
  • 1446.00 EUR
  • 693.60 EUR
  • 393.60 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx102120 Abbexa
  • 543.60 EUR
  • 159.60 EUR
  • 1562.40 EUR
  • 744.00 EUR
  • 410.40 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx102121 Abbexa
  • 560.40 EUR
  • 159.60 EUR
  • 1629.60 EUR
  • 777.60 EUR
  • 427.20 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx102122 Abbexa
  • 427.20 EUR
  • 1095.60 EUR
  • 560.40 EUR
  • 184.80 EUR
  • 326.40 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx129574 Abbexa
  • 526.80 EUR
  • 159.60 EUR
  • 1479.60 EUR
  • 710.40 EUR
  • 393.60 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

abx430005-200ul Abbexa 200 ul 460.8 EUR

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

20-abx002738 Abbexa
  • 493.20 EUR
  • 710.40 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul

Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) Antibody

abx145755-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 469.2 EUR

Rat Brain Lysate Membrane Fraction

IRTBRTLM100UG Innovative research each 870 EUR
Description: Rat Brain Lysate Membrane Fraction

Brain Natriuretic Peptide-45, rat

TP1207-10mg TargetMol Chemicals 10mg Ask for price
Description: Brain Natriuretic Peptide-45, rat

Brain Natriuretic Peptide-45, rat

TP1207-1g TargetMol Chemicals 1g Ask for price
Description: Brain Natriuretic Peptide-45, rat

Brain Natriuretic Peptide-45, rat

TP1207-1mg TargetMol Chemicals 1mg Ask for price
Description: Brain Natriuretic Peptide-45, rat

Brain Natriuretic Peptide-45, rat

TP1207-50mg TargetMol Chemicals 50mg Ask for price
Description: Brain Natriuretic Peptide-45, rat

Brain Natriuretic Peptide-45, rat

TP1207-5mg TargetMol Chemicals 5mg Ask for price
Description: Brain Natriuretic Peptide-45, rat

T-Box, Brain 1 (TBR1) Antibody

abx238529-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 610.8 EUR

T-Box, Brain 1 (TBR1) Antibody

20-abx218849 Abbexa
  • 510.00 EUR
  • 410.40 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Rabbit BRAIN STRIPPED MT 25 EA

41305-2 Pel-Freez 25 EA 409.48 EUR

T-Box, Brain 1 (TBR1) Antibody

abx029785-400ul Abbexa 400 ul 627.6 EUR

T-Box, Brain 1 (TBR1) Antibody

abx029785-80l Abbexa 80 µl 343.2 EUR

Total Protein - Liver Cirrhosis: Brain

P1236035Lcs Biochain 1 mg 471 EUR

Recombinant Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A)

4-RPD035Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 580.19 EUR
  • 278.40 EUR
  • 1845.70 EUR
  • 695.23 EUR
  • 1270.46 EUR
  • 463.20 EUR
  • 4434.24 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Syntaxin 1A, Brain expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A)

RPU52468-100ug Biomatik Corporation 100ug 528 EUR

Recombinant Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A)

RPU52468-1mg Biomatik Corporation 1mg 2337.4 EUR

Recombinant Syntaxin 1A, Brain (STX1A)

RPU52468-50ug Biomatik Corporation 50ug 423.5 EUR

BNP, Brain Natriuretic Peptide, human

RC218-20 Bio Basic 20ug 125.26 EUR

Rat FibrOut 4, for brain, neural

4-20533 CHI Scientific 1 ml Ask for price

Rat FibrOut 4, for brain, neural

4-20534 CHI Scientific 5 x 1 ml Ask for price

HighQC™ Human Brain Stem Cell

ABC-SC0112 AcceGen 1 vial Ask for price
Description: Human Brain Stem Cell; Frozen Vial and Plated cells are available. Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Gentaur Media and Gentaur Extra Cellular Matrix for appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment.

Brain Finger Protein (RNF112) Antibody

abx237336-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 661.2 EUR


Screening and Treatment of Obstetric Anemia: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines

Iron deficiency is a major cause of anemia.1 Other causes of anemia include deficiency in nutrients (e.g., vitamin B12 and folate), inflammation, parasitic infections and disorders in hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis or red blood cell production and survival (e.g., hemoglobinopathies).

1 Iron deficiency anemia is defined as blood Hb concentrations of less than 110 g/L in the first trimester, less than 105 g/L in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and less than 100 g/L postpartum.

2 The serum ferritin level provides information about the capacity of the body to reserve iron and its concentration of less than 15 µg/L (a cut off that is associated with higher specificity) during pregnancy is diagnostic of iron deficiency anemia.

2,3 A level of less than 30 µg/L of ferritin (a cut off that is associated with higher sensitivity) should prompt treatment.

2,3 However, serum ferritin measurement may not be accurate during infection or inflammation, as it can be normal or elevated despite a low Hb concentration.

1 Iron deficiency in pregnancy has significant negative effects on both maternal and fetal outcomes, including low birthweight, prematurity, perinatal mortality, increased risk of maternal infections and lowered tolerance to blood loss and infection.1 It also affects immediate and long term neurodevelopment of infants.

4 It was found that low maternal iron intake is associated with increased risk of autism, schizophrenia and abnormal brain structure in the offspring.

4 A review reported that findings from several cross-sectional studies suggested that the prevalence of iron deficiency among pregnant Canadians and pregnant adolescents ranged from 3% to 66%.5 Given the negative impacts of iron deficiency on maternal and child health, there is still uncertainty as whether screening of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy should be part of routine care, and which type of testing (e.g., Hb or ferritin) is more effective to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. The aim of this report is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening obstetric iron deficiency in the first or second trimester using ferritin testing, and to review evidence-based guidelines for assessing and treating obstetric iron deficiency.

In this report, gender-neutral language has been used where possible in order to be inclusive of all gender identities. When reporting results from the published manuscript, gender-neutral language was not used in order to be consistent with the terms used in the source material.
The Architecture of the Human Fovea

We summarize the development, structure, different neural types and neural circuitry in the human fovea. The foveal pit is devoid of rod photoreceptors and of secondary and tertiary neurons, allowing light to directly stimulate cones and give us maximal visual acuity. The circuitry underlying the transmission to the brain occurs at the rim of the fovea. The predominant circuitry is concerned with the ‘private’ cone to midget bipolar cell and midget ganglion cell pathways.

Every cone drives two midget bipolar cells and two midget ganglion cells so that the message from a single cone is provided to the brain as a contrast between lighter signals (ON pathways) or darker signals (OFF pathways). The sharpening of this contrast message is provided by horizontal-cell feedback circuits and, in some pathways by amacrine circuitry. These midget pathways carry a concentric color and spatially opponent message from red and green cones. Blue cones are sparse, even largely missing in the foveal center while occurring at somewhat higher density than elsewhere in the cone mosaic of the foveal slope. Signals from blue cones have different pathways to ganglion cells. The best understood is through an ON-type blue-cone-selecting bipolar cell to a non-midget, small bistratified ganglion cell.

An OFF-center blue midget bipolar is known to be present in the fovea and connects to a blue OFF midget ganglion cell. Another OFF blue message is sent to a giant melanopsin ganglion cell that is present in the foveal rim area, but the circuitry driving that is less certain and possibly involves an intermediate amacrine cell. The H2 horizontal cells are thought to be feedback neurons primarily of the blue cone system.

Amacrine cells of the fovea are mostly small-field and glycinergic. The larger field GABAergic amacrines are present but more typically surround the fovea in a ring of processes, with little or no penetration into the foveal center. Thus, the small field glycinergic amacrines are important in some sort of interplay with the midget bipolar–midget ganglion cell channels. We have anatomical descriptions of their synaptology but only a few have been recorded from physiologically. Both OFF pathway and ON pathway amacrines are present in the fovea.


Measuring water exchange across the blood-brain barrier using MRI.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the transfer of solutes and essential nutrients into the brain. Growing evidence supports BBB dysfunction in a range of acute and chronic brain diseases, justifying the need for novel research and clinical tools that can non-invasively detect, characterize, and quantify BBB dysfunction in-vivo.

Many approaches already exist for measuring BBB dysfunction in man using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (e.g. dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI measurements of gadolinium leakage).

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